• IEC 60076-12:2008

    Current The latest, up-to-date edition.

    Power transformers - Part 12: Loading guide for dry-type power transformers

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF, PDF 3 Users, PDF 5 Users, PDF 9 Users

    Language(s):  English - French, Spanish, Castilian

    Published date:  05-11-2008

    Publisher:  International Electrotechnical Committee

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    Table of Contents - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    FOREWORD
    INTRODUCTION
    1 Scope
    2 Normative references
    3 Terms and definitions
    4 Effect of loading beyond nameplate rating
      4.1 General
      4.2 General consequences
      4.3 Effects and hazards of short-time emergency loading
      4.4 Effects of long-time emergency loading
    5 Ageing and transformer insulation lifetime
      5.1 General
      5.2 Lifetime
      5.3 Relation between constant continuous load and
           temperature
      5.4 Ageing rate
      5.5 Lifetime consumption
      5.6 Hot-spot temperature in steady state
      5.7 Assumed hot-spot factor
      5.8 Hot-spot temperature rises at varying ambient
           temperature and load conditions
      5.9 Loading equations
           5.9.1 Continuous loading
           5.9.2 Transient loading
      5.10 Determination of winding time constant
           5.10.1 General
           5.10.2 Time constant calculation method
           5.10.3 Time constant test method
      5.11 Determination of winding time constant according
           to empirical constant
      5.12 Calculation of loading capability
    6 Limitations
      6.1 Current and temperature limitations
      6.2 Other limitations
           6.2.1 Magnetic leakage field in structural metallic
                  parts
           6.2.2 Accessories and other considerations
           6.2.3 Transformers in an enclosure
           6.2.4 Outdoor ambient conditions
    Annex A (informative) Ageing rate
    Annex B (informative) Examples of lifetime consumptions
            for 3 load regimes
    Annex C (informative) List of symbols
    Bibliography

    Abstract - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    IEC 60076-12:2008 is applicable to dry-type transformers according to the scope of IEC 60076-11. It provides the means to estimate ageing rate and consumption of lifetime of the transformer insulation as a function of the operating temperature, time and the loading of the transformer.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee TC 14
    Development Note Supersedes IEC 60905. (11/2008) Stability Date: 2018. (07/2015)
    Document Type Standard
    Publisher International Electrotechnical Committee
    Status Current
    Superseded By
    Supersedes

    Standards Referenced By This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    PREN ISO 5826 : DRAFT 2012 RESISTANCE WELDING EQUIPMENT - TRANSFORMERS - GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS APPLICABLE TO ALL TRANSFORMERS (ISO/DIS 5826:2012)
    UNE-EN 50541-1:2012 Three phase dry-type distribution transformers 50 Hz, from 100 kVA to 3 150 kVA, with highest voltage for equipment not exceeding 36 kV - Part 1: General requirements
    UNE-EN 61378-1:2012 Convertor transformers -- Part 1: Transformers for industrial applications
    I.S. EN 60076-16:2011 POWER TRANSFORMERS - PART 16: TRANSFORMERS FOR WIND TURBINES APPLICATIONS (IEC 60076-16:2011)
    I.S. EN 62271-212:2017 HIGH-VOLTAGE SWITCHGEAR AND CONTROLGEAR - PART 212: COMPACT EQUIPMENT ASSEMBLY FOR DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATION (CEADS)
    NF EN 60076-16 : 2012 POWER TRANSFORMERS - PART 16: TRANSFORMERS FOR WIND TURBINES APPLICATION
    UNE-EN 62271-212:2017 High-voltage switchgear and controlgear - Part 212: Compact Equipment Assembly for Distribution Substation (CEADS)
    11/30253145 DC : 0 BS EN 62271-202 ED2 - HIGH-VOLTAGE SWITCHGEAR AND CONTROLGEAR - PART 202: HIGH-VOLTAGE/LOW-VOLTAGE PREFABRICATED SUBSTATION
    EN 50541-1 : 2011 THREE PHASE DRY-TYPE DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS 50 HZ, FROM 100 KVA TO 3150 KVA, WITH HIGHEST VOLTAGE FOR EQUIPMENT NOT EXCEEDING 36 KV - PART 1: GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
    EN 62271-212:2017 High-voltage switchgear and controlgear - Part 212: Compact Equipment Assembly for Distribution Substation (CEADS)
    EN 62271-202:2014/AC:2014 HIGH-VOLTAGE SWITCHGEAR AND CONTROLGEAR - PART 202: HIGH-VOLTAGE/LOW-VOLTAGE PREFABRICATED SUBSTATION (IEC 62271-202:2014)
    EN 61378-1:2011 CONVERTOR TRANSFORMERS - PART 1: TRANSFORMERS FOR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS (IEC 61378-1:2011)
    13/30256030 DC : 0 BS IEC 62695 ED 1.0 - RAILWAY APPLICATIONS - FIXED INSTALLATIONS - TRACTION TRANSFORMERS
    BS EN 50541-1:2011 THREE PHASE DRY-TYPE DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS 50 HZ, FROM 100 KVA TO 3150 KVA, WITH HIGHEST VOLTAGE FOR EQUIPMENT NOT EXCEEDING 36 KV - PART 1: GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
    CEI EN 60076-16 : 2012 POWER TRANSFORMERS - PART 16: TRANSFORMERS FOR WIND TURBINES APPLICATIONS
    I.S. EN 62271-202:2014 HIGH-VOLTAGE SWITCHGEAR AND CONTROLGEAR - PART 202: HIGH-VOLTAGE/LOW-VOLTAGE PREFABRICATED SUBSTATION
    CEI EN 61378-1 : 2012 CONVERTOR TRANSFORMERS - PART 1: TRANSFORMERS FOR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS
    I.S. EN 60077-1:2017 RAILWAY APPLICATIONS - ELECTRIC EQUIPMENT FOR ROLLING STOCK - PART 1: GENERAL SERVICE CONDITIONS AND GENERAL RULES
    IEC 60077-1 REDLINE : 2ED 2017 RAILWAY APPLICATIONS - ELECTRIC EQUIPMENT FOR ROLLING STOCK - PART 1: GENERAL SERVICE CONDITIONS AND GENERAL RULES
    I.S. EN ISO 14224:2016 PETROLEUM, PETROCHEMICAL AND NATURAL GAS INDUSTRIES - COLLECTION AND EXCHANGE OF RELIABILITY AND MAINTENANCE DATA FOR EQUIPMENT (ISO 14224:2016)
    I.S. EN 60974-1:2012 ARC WELDING EQUIPMENT - PART 1: WELDING POWER SOURCES (IEC 60974-1:2012 (EQV))
    BS EN 60214-1:2014 Tap-changers Performance requirements and test methods
    BS EN 60076-1:2011 POWER TRANSFORMERS - PART 1: GENERAL
    CEI EN 50541-1 : 2011 THREE PHASE DRY-TYPE DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS 50 HZ, FROM 100 KVA TO 3150 KVA, WITH HIGHEST VOLTAGE FOR EQUIPMENT NOT EXCEEDING 36 KV - PART 1: GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
    14/30271248 DC : 0 BS EN 60310 ED 4.0 - RAILWAY APPLICATIONS - TRACTION TRANSFORMERS AND INDUCTORS ON BOARD ROLLING STOCK
    CCS GUIDELINE E-07 : DEC 2017 TRANSFORMERS
    BS EN 60974-1:2012 Arc welding equipment Welding power sources
    IEC 61892-3:2012 Mobile and fixed offshore units - Electrical installations - Part 3: Equipment
    I.S. EN 60310:2016 RAILWAY APPLICATIONS - TRACTION TRANSFORMERS AND INDUCTORS ON BOARD ROLLING STOCK
    I.S. EN 50541-1:2011 THREE PHASE DRY-TYPE DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS 50 HZ, FROM 100 KVA TO 3150 KVA, WITH HIGHEST VOLTAGE FOR EQUIPMENT NOT EXCEEDING 36 KV - PART 1: GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
    IEC 62695:2014 Railway applications - Fixed installations - Traction transformers
    PREN 50541-1 : DRAFT 2009 THREE PHASE DRY-TYPE DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS 50 HZ, FROM 100 TO 3150 KVA, WITH HIGHEST VOLTAGE FOR EQUIPMENT NOT EXCEEDING 36 KV - PART 1: GENERAL REQUIREMENTS AND REQUIREMENTS FOR DRY TYPE TRANSFORMERS WITH HIGHEST VOLTAGE FOR EQUIPMENT NOT EXCEEDING 36 KV
    IEC TR 62655:2013 Tutorial and application guide for high-voltage fuses
    IEC 60974-1:2017 Arc welding equipment - Part 1: Welding power sources
    UNE-EN 62271-202:2015 High-voltage switchgear and controlgear - Part 202: High-voltage/low-voltage prefabricated substation
    ISO 14224:2016 Petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries Collection and exchange of reliability and maintenance data for equipment
    UNI EN ISO 5826 : 2014 RESISTANCE WELDING EQUIPMENT - TRANSFORMERS - GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS APPLICABLE TO ALL TRANSFORMERS
    CSA E60974.1 : 2012 ARC WELDING EQUIPMENT - PART 1: WELDING POWER SOURCES
    12/30246951 DC : 0 BS ISO 5826 - RESISTANCE WELDING EQUIPMENT - TRANSFORMERS - GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS APPLICABLE TO ALL TRANSFORMERS
    CSA C802.4 : 2013 GUIDE FOR KVA SIZING OF DRY-TYPE TRANSFORMERS, 1.2 KV CLASS, SINGLE-PHASE AND THREE-PHASE
    PD IEC/TR 62655:2013 Tutorial and application guide for high-voltage fuses
    13/30288591 DC : 0 BS EN 60974-1 - ARC WEDLING EQUIPMENT - PART 1: WELDING POWER SOURCE
    BS EN 60076-16:2011 (published 2011-11) Power transformers Transformers for wind turbines applications
    BS EN 61378-1:2011 Convertor transformers Transformers for industrial applications
    UNE-EN 60076-16:2012 Power transformers - Part 16: Transformers for wind turbines applications
    IEEE C57.96 : 2013 GUIDE FOR LOADING DRY-TYPE DISTRIBUTION AND POWER TRANSFORMERS
    BS EN 60310:2016 Railway applications. Traction transformers and inductors on board rolling stock
    CEI EN 60076-1 : 2015 POWER TRANSFORMERS - PART 1: GENERAL
    DIN EN ISO 5826:2014-07 RESISTANCE WELDING EQUIPMENT - TRANSFORMERS - GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS APPLICABLE TO ALL TRANSFORMERS (ISO 5826:2014)
    BS EN 62271-212:2017 High-voltage switchgear and controlgear Compact Equipment Assembly for Distribution Substation (CEADS)
    IEC 61378-1:2011 Converter transformers - Part 1: Transformers for industrial applications
    16/30296081 DC : 0 BS EN 60077-1 ED. 2.0 - RAILWAY APPLICATIONS - ELECTRIC EQUIPMENT FOR ROLLING STOCK - PART 1: GENERAL SERVICE CONDITIONS AND GENERAL RULES
    UNE-EN 60076-1:2013 Power transformers - Part 1: General
    IEC 60076-1:2011 Power transformers - Part 1: General
    IEC 62271-212:2016 High-voltage switchgear and controlgear - Part 212: Compact Equipment Assembly for Distribution Substation (CEADS)
    IEC 62271-202:2014 High-voltage switchgear and controlgear - Part 202: High-voltage/ low-voltage prefabricated substation
    IEC 60310:2016 Railway applications - Traction transformers and inductors on board rolling stock
    IEC 60214-1:2014 Tap-changers - Part 1: Performance requirements and test methods
    BS EN 60077-1:2017 Railway applications. Electric equipment for rolling stock General service conditions and general rules
    ISO 5826:2014 Resistance welding equipment Transformers General specifications applicable to all transformers
    EN 60076-16 : 2011 POWER TRANSFORMERS - PART 16: TRANSFORMERS FOR WIND TURBINES APPLICATIONS (IEC 60076-16:2011)
    EN ISO 5826:2014 RESISTANCE WELDING EQUIPMENT - TRANSFORMERS - GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS APPLICABLE TO ALL TRANSFORMERS (ISO 5826:2014)
    09/30211604 DC : 0 BS EN 50541-1 - THREE PHASE DRY-TYPE DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS 50 HZ, FROM 100 TO 3150 KVA, WITH HIGHEST VOLTAGE FOR EQUIPMENT NOT EXCEEDING 36 KV - PART 1: GENERAL REQUIREMENTS AND REQUIREMENTS FOR DRY TYPE TRANSFORMERS WITH HIGHEST VOLTAGE FOR EQUIPMENT NOT EXCEEDING 36 KV
    CEI EN 60974-1 : 2013 ARC WELDING EQUIPMENT - PART 1: WELDING POWER SOURCES
    BS IEC 61892-3:2012 MOBILE AND FIXED OFFSHORE UNITS - ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS - PART 3: EQUIPMENT
    16/30349321 DC : 0 BS EN 60076-11 ED 2.0 - POWER TRANSFORMERS - PART 11: DRY-TYPE TRANSFORMERS
    NF EN 60310 : 2017 RAILWAY APPLICATIONS - TRACTION TRANSFORMERS AND INDUCTORS ON BOARD ROLLING STOCK
    I.S. EN 60076-1:2011 POWER TRANSFORMERS - PART 1: GENERAL (IEC 60076-1:2011)
    I.S. EN 61378-1:2011 CONVERTOR TRANSFORMERS - PART 1: TRANSFORMERS FOR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS (IEC 61378-1:2011)
    UNE-EN 60974-1:2013 Arc welding equipment - Part 1: Welding power sources
    UNE-EN 60214-1:2015 Tap-changers - Part 1: Performance requirements and test methods
    I.S. EN 60214-1:2014 TAP-CHANGERS - PART 1: PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS AND TEST METHODS
    IEC 60077-1:2017 Railway applications - Electric equipment for rolling stock - Part 1: General service conditions and general rules
    IEC 60076-16:2011 Power transformers - Part 16: Transformers for wind turbine applications
    BS EN ISO 14224:2016 Petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries. Collection and exchange of reliability and maintenance data for equipment
    BS EN 62271-202:2014 High-voltage switchgear and controlgear High-voltage/low-voltage prefabricated substation
    BS EN ISO 5826:2014 RESISTANCE WELDING EQUIPMENT - TRANSFORMERS - GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS APPLICABLE TO ALL TRANSFORMERS
    EN 60077-1:2017 RAILWAY APPLICATIONS - ELECTRIC EQUIPMENT FOR ROLLING STOCK - PART 1: GENERAL SERVICE CONDITIONS AND GENERAL RULES (IEC 60077-1:2017)
    IEC 60077-1:2017 RLV Railway applications - Electric equipment for rolling stock - Part 1: General service conditions and general rules
    EN 60214-1:2014 TAP-CHANGERS - PART 1: PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS AND TEST METHODS (IEC 60214-1:2014)
    EN 60974-1:2012 ARC WELDING EQUIPMENT - PART 1: WELDING POWER SOURCES (IEC 60974-1:2012)
    EN 60076-1:2011 POWER TRANSFORMERS - PART 1: GENERAL (IEC 60076-1:2011)
    EN 60310:2016/AC:2018-03 RAILWAY APPLICATIONS - TRACTION TRANSFORMERS AND INDUCTORS ON BOARD ROLLING STOCK (IEC 60310:2016/COR1:2018)
    CEI 18-58 : 2013 MOBILE AND FIXED OFFSHORE UNITS - ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS - PART 3: EQUIPMENT

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    IEC 60216-6:2006 Electrical insulating materials - Thermal endurance properties - Part 6: Determination of thermal endurance indices (TI and RTE) of an insulating material using the fixed time frame method
    IEC 60216-4-2:2000 Electrical insulating materials - Thermal endurance properties - Part 4-2: Ageing ovens - Precision ovens for use up to 300 °C
    IEC 60216-4-1:2006 Electrical insulating materials - Thermal endurance properties - Part 4-1: Ageing ovens - Single-chamber ovens
    IEC 60216-2:2005 Electrical insulating materials - Thermal endurance properties - Part 2: Determination of thermal endurance properties of electrical insulating materials - Choice of test criteria
    IEC 60076-1:2011 Power transformers - Part 1: General
    IEC 60076-2:2011 Power transformers - Part 2: Temperature rise for liquid-immersed transformers
    IEC 60216-4-3:2000 Electrical insulating materials - Thermal endurance properties - Part 4-3: Ageing ovens - Multi-chamber ovens
    IEC 60216-5:2008 Electrical insulating materials - Thermal endurance properties - Part 5: Determination of relative thermal endurance index (RTE) of an insulating material
    IEC 60216-1:2013 Electrical insulating materials - Thermal endurance properties - Part 1: Ageing procedures and evaluation of test results
    IEC 61378-1:2011 Converter transformers - Part 1: Transformers for industrial applications
    IEC 60216-3:2006 Electrical insulating materials - Thermal endurance properties - Part 3: Instructions for calculating thermal endurance characteristics
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