• IEC 62155:2003

    Current The latest, up-to-date edition.

    Hollow pressurized and unpressurized ceramic and glass insulators for use in electrical equipment with rated voltages greater than 1 000 V

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    Language(s):  English - French, Spanish, Castilian

    Published date:  19-05-2003

    Publisher:  International Electrotechnical Committee

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    Table of Contents - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    FOREWORD
    1 Scope and object
       1.1 General
       1.2 Hollow insulators or hollow insulator bodies intended
            for general use
       1.3 Ceramic hollow insulators intended for use with
            permanent gas pressure
    2 Normative references
    3 Terms and definitions
    4 Insulating materials
    5 General recommendations for design
       5.1 General recommendations for design of hollow insulators
            and hollow insulator bodies intended for general use
       5.2 Design rules for hollow insulators and hollow insulator
            bodies for use with permanent gas pressure
    6 Classification of the tests, sampling rules and procedures
       6.1 Classification of the tests
       6.2 Relevant tests for type, sample and routine tests
       6.3 Hollow insulator or hollow insulator body selection
       6.4 Retest procedure for sample tests
       6.5 Quality assurance
    7 General test procedures and requirements
       7.1 Verification of the dimensions and roughness of ground
            surfaces
       7.2 Mechanical failing load tests
       7.3 Temperature cycle test
       7.4 Porosity test
       7.5 Galvanizing test
    8 Type tests
       8.1 Tests
       8.2 Pressure test
       8.3 Bending test
    9 Sample tests
       9.1 Tests for hollow insulators or hollow insulator bodies
           intended for general use
       9.2 Tests for ceramic hollow insulators or hollow insulator
           bodies intended for use with permanent gas pressure
    10 Routine tests
       10.1 Tests for hollow insulators or hollow insulator bodies
            intended for general use
       10.2 Tests for ceramic hollow insulators or hollow insulator
            bodies intended for use with permanent gas pressure
       10.3 Routine visual inspection
       10.4 Electrical routine test
       10.5 Routine mechanical tests for hollow insulators or
            hollow insulator bodies intended for general use
       10.6 Routine mechanical tests for ceramic hollow insulators
            or hollow insulator bodies intended for use with
            permanent gas pressure
       10.7 Routine thermal shock test
    11 Documentation
       11.1 Marking
       11.2 Records
    Annex A (informative) Methods of testing for tolerances of
                          parallelism, coaxiality, eccentricity,
                          angular deviation, camber and shed angle
                          of hollow insulators or hollow insulator
                          bodies
    Annex B (informative) Methods for bending tests of hollow
                          insulator bodies
    Annex C (informative) Alternative test method for the
                          temperature-cycle test
    Annex D (informative) Bending moment equivalent to the design
                          pressure
    Bibliography

    Abstract - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Applicable to ceramic and glass hollow insulators intended for general use in electrical equipment and ceramic hollow insulators intended for use with a permanent gas pressure in switchgear and controlgear. These insulators are intended for indoor and outdoor use in electrical equipment, operating on alternating current with a rated voltage greater than 1 000 V and a frequency not greater than 100 Hz or for use in direct-current equipment with a rated voltage of greater than 1 500 V.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee TC 36
    Development Note Supersedes IEC 60233 and IEC 61264. (05/2003) Stability Date: 2020. (09/2017)
    Document Type Standard
    Publisher International Electrotechnical Committee
    Status Current
    Supersedes

    Standards Referenced By This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    NF EN 62199 : 2004 BUSHINGS FOR D.C. APPLICATION
    CEI EN 61462 : 2008 COMPOSITE HOLLOW INSULATORS - PRESSURIZED AND UNPRESSURIZED INSULATORS FOR USE IN ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT WITH RATED VOLTAGE GREATER THAN 1000 V - DEFINITIONS, TEST METHODS, ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA AND DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS
    BS EN 50180-1:2015 Bushings above 1 kV up to 52 kV and from 250 A to 3,15 kA for liquid filled transformers General requirements for bushings
    BS EN 61869-1 : 2009 INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS - PART 1: GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
    BS EN 50386 : 2010 BUSHINGS UP TO 1 KV AND FROM 250 A TO 5 KA, FOR LIQUID FILLED TRANSFORMERS
    NF EN 61462 : 2008 COMPOSITE HOLLOW INSULATORS - PRESSURIZED AND UNPRESSURIZED INSULATORS FOR USE IN ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT WITH RATED VOLTAGE GREATER THAN 1000 V - DEFINITIONS, TEST METHODS, ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA AND DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS
    NF EN 60137 : 2017 INSULATED BUSHINGS FOR ALTERNATING VOLTAGES ABOVE 1000 V
    IEEE C37.017 : 2010 BUSHINGS FOR HIGH-VOLTAGE [OVER 1000 V (AC)] CIRCUIT BREAKERS AND GAS-INSULATED SWITCHGEAR
    CEI EN 62271-207 : 2014 HIGH-VOLTAGE SWITCHGEAR AND CONTROLGEAR - PART 207: SEISMIC QUALIFICATION FOR GAS-INSULATED SWITCHGEAR ASSEMBLIES FOR RATED VOLTAGES ABOVE 52 KV
    BS IEC/IEEE 65700-19-03 : 2014 BUSHINGS FOR DC APPLICATION
    11/30247685 DC : 0 BS EN 65700-19-03 - BUSHINGS FOR DC APPLICATION
    BS EN 50180 : 1999 BUSHINGS ABOVE 1 KV UP TO 52 KV AND FROM 250 A TO 3,15 KA FOR LIQUID FILLED TRANSFORMERS
    DD IEC TS 62371 : DRAFT JUNE 2008 CHARACTERISTICS OF HOLLOW PRESSURISED AND UNPRESSURISED CERAMIC AND GLASS INSULATORS FOR USE IN ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT WITH RATED VOLTAGES GREATER THAN 1000 V
    CSA C60044-5:2007 INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS - PART 5: CAPACITOR VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS
    BS EN 62271-203:2012 High-voltage switchgear and controlgear Gas-insulated metal-enclosed switchgear for rated voltages above 52 kV
    PREN 50386 : DRAFT 2010 BUSHINGS UP TO 1 KV AND FROM 250 A TO 5 KA, FOR LIQUID FILLED TRANSFORMERS
    CSA C60044-5 : 2007 : R2011 INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS - PART 5: CAPACITOR VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS
    IEEE C37.122.1 : 2014 GAS-INSULATED SUBSTATIONS RATED ABOVE 52 KV
    CSA C60044-8 : 2007 : R2016 INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS - PART 8: ELECTRONIC CURRENT TRANSFORMERS
    I.S. EN 61462:2007 COMPOSITE HOLLOW INSULATORS - PRESSURIZED AND UNPRESSURIZED INSULATORS FOR USE IN ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT WITH RATED VOLTAGE GREATER THAN 1 000 V - DEFINITIONS, TEST METHODS, ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA AND DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS
    BS EN 60137 : 2017 INSULATED BUSHINGS FOR ALTERNATING VOLTAGES ABOVE 1000 V
    I.S. EN 60137:2017 INSULATED BUSHINGS FOR ALTERNATING VOLTAGES ABOVE 1000 V
    CEI EN 62199 : 2005 BUSHINGS FOR D.C. APPLICATION
    EN 60137:2017 INSULATED BUSHINGS FOR ALTERNATING VOLTAGES ABOVE 1000 V (IEC 60137:2017)
    NF EN 62271-205 : 2008 HIGH-VOLTAGE SWITCHGEAR AND CONTROLGEAR - PART 205: COMPACT SWITCHGEAR ASSEMBLIES FOR RATED VOLTAGES ABOVE 52 KV
    UNE-EN 62271-203:2013 High-voltage switchgear and controlgear - Part 203: Gas-insulated metal-enclosed switchgear for rated voltages above 52 kV
    EN 62271-205:2008/corrigendum:2008 HIGH-VOLTAGE SWITCHGEAR AND CONTROLGEAR - PART 205: COMPACT SWITCHGEAR ASSEMBLIES FOR RATED VOLTAGES ABOVE 52 KV
    EN 62199 : 2004 BUSHINGS FOR D.C. APPLICATION
    EN 60044-5 : 2004 INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS - PART 5: CAPACITOR VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS
    BS EN 60358-1:2012 (published 2014-03) Coupling capacitors and capacitor dividers General rules
    BS EN 60044-5 : 2004 INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS - PART 5: CAPACITOR VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS
    NF EN 61869-1 : 2009 INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS - PART 1: GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
    05/30132701 DC : DRAFT APR 2005 IEC 62271-300 ED 1 - HIGH-VOLTAGE SWITCHGEAR AND CONTROLGEAR - PART 300: SEISMIC QUALIFICATION OF ALTERNATING CURRENT CIRCUIT-BREAKERS
    BS EN 61462:2007 Composite hollow insulators. Pressurized and unpressurized insulators for use in electrical equipment with rated voltage greater than 1000 V. Definitions, test methods, acceptance criteria and design recommendations
    13/30257235 DC : 0 BS EN 62772 - COMPOSITE HOLLOW CORE STATION POST INSULATORS FOR SUBSTATIONS WITH A.C. AND D.C. VOLTAGES GREATER THAN 1000 V - DEFINITIONS, TEST METHODS AND ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA
    15/30289940 DC : 0 BS EN 50180-1 - BUSHINGS ABOVE 1 KV UP TO 52 KV AND FROM 250 A TO 3,15 KA FOR LIQUID FILLED TRANSFORMERS - PART 1: GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR BUSHINGS
    BS EN 62199 : 2004 BUSHINGS FOR D.C. APPLICATION
    04/30112722 DC : DRAFT APR 2004 IEC 60044-5 ED.1 - INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS - PART 5: CAPACITOR VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS
    04/30111589 DC : 0
    IEC TR 62271-300:2006 High-voltage switchgear and controlgear - Part 300: Seismic qualification of alternating current circuit-breakers
    I.S. EN 60044-5:2004 INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS - PART 5: CAPACITOR VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS
    CSA C60044-8 : 2007 : R2011 INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS - PART 8: ELECTRONIC CURRENT TRANSFORMERS
    BIS IS/IEC 62271-203 : 2003 HIGH-VOLTAGE SWITCHGEAR AND CONTROLGEAR - PART 203: GAS-INSULATED METAL-ENCLOSED SWITCHGEAR FOR RATED VOLTAGES ABOVE 52 KV
    I.S. EN 62146-1:2014 GRADING CAPACITORS FOR HIGH-VOLTAGE ALTERNATING CURRENT CIRCUIT-BREAKERS - PART 1: GENERAL
    IEC 60137:2017 Insulated bushings for alternating voltages above 1000 V
    I.S. EN 60358-1:2012 COUPLING CAPACITORS AND CAPACITOR DIVIDERS - PART 1: GENERAL RULES (IEC 60358-1:2012 (EQV))
    IEC/IEEE 65700-19-03:2014 Bushings for DC application
    I.S. EN 50180:2010 BUSHINGS ABOVE 1 KV UP TO 52 KV AND FROM 250 A TO 3,15 KA FOR LIQUID FILLED TRANSFORMERS
    IEC 61462:2007 Composite hollow insulators - Pressurized and unpressurized insulators for use in electrical equipment with rated voltage greater than 1 000 V - Definitions, test methods, acceptance criteria and design recommendations
    IEC 60137:2017 RLV Insulated bushings for alternating voltages above 1000 V
    UNE-EN 62271-207:2012 High-voltage switchgear and controlgear - Part 207: Seismic qualification for gas-insulated switchgear assemblies for rated voltages above 52 kV
    BS EN 62772:2016 Composite hollow core station post insulators for substations with a.c. voltage greater than 1 000 V and d.c. voltage greater than 1 500 V. Definitions, test methods and acceptance criteria
    06/30145423 DC : DRAFT JAN 2006
    12/30235047 DC : 0 BS EN 62146-1 ED.1 - GRADING CAPACITORS FOR HIGH-VOLTAGE ALTERNATING CURRENT CIRCUIT-BREAKERS
    08/30179468 DC : DRAFT MAR 2008 BS EN 62271-203 - HIGH-VOLTAGE SWITCHGEAR AND CONTROLGEAR - PART 203: GAS-INSULATED METAL-ENCLOSED SWITCHGEAR FOR RATED VOLTAGES ABOVE 52 KV
    UNE-EN 60137:2011 Insulated bushings for alternating voltages above 1 000 V
    CSA C60044-2 : 2007 INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS - PART 2: INDUCTIVE VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS
    CSA C60044-8 :2007 INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS - PART 8: ELECTRONIC CURRENT TRANSFORMERS
    CSA C60044-2 : 2007 : R2011 INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS - PART 2: INDUCTIVE VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS
    I.S. EN 61869-1:2009 INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS - PART 1: GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
    I.S. EN 62271-207:2012 HIGH-VOLTAGE SWITCHGEAR AND CONTROLGEAR - PART 207: SEISMIC QUALIFICATION FOR GAS-INSULATED SWITCHGEAR ASSEMBLIES FOR RATED VOLTAGES ABOVE 52 KV (IEC 62271-207:2012 (EQV))
    BS EN 62146-1 : 2014 GRADING CAPACITORS FOR HIGH-VOLTAGE ALTERNATING CURRENT CIRCUIT-BREAKERS - PART 1: GENERAL (IEC 62146-1:2013)
    I.S. EN 62199:2004 BUSHINGS FOR D.C. APPLICATION
    I.S. EN 62271-205:2008 HIGH-VOLTAGE SWITCHGEAR AND CONTROLGEAR - PART 205: COMPACT SWITCHGEAR ASSEMBLIES FOR RATED VOLTAGES ABOVE 52 KV
    IEC TS 62371:2008 Characteristics of hollow pressurised and unpressurised ceramic and glass insulators for use in electrical equipment with rated voltages greater than 1000 V
    IEC 60044-5:2004 Instrument transformers - Part 5: Capacitor voltage transformers
    UNE-EN 61869-1:2010 Instrument transformers -- Part 1: General requirements
    EN 50180:2010 BUSHINGS ABOVE 1 KV UP TO 52 KV AND FROM 250 A TO 3,15 KA FOR LIQUID FILLED TRANSFORMERS
    UNE-EN 50180-1:2015 Bushings above 1 kV up to 52 kV and from 250 A to 3,15 kA for liquid filled transformers - Part 1: General requirements for bushings
    IEC GUIDE 111:2004 Electrical high-voltage equipment in high-voltage substations - Common recommendations for product standards
    10/30216488 DC : 0 BS EN 50386 - BUSHINGS UP TO 1 KV AND FROM 250 A TO 5 KA, FOR LIQUID FILLED TRANSFORMERS
    09/30214442 DC : 0 BS EN 50180 - BUSHINGS ABOVE 1 KV UP TO 52 KV AND FROM 250 A TO 3,15 KA FOR LIQUID FILLED TRANSFORMERS
    PD IEC/TS 61463:2016 Bushings. Seismic qualification
    IEC TS 61463:2016 Bushings - Seismic qualification
    08/30183914 DC : DRAFT JUNE 2008 BS EN 60358-1 - COUPLING CAPACITORS AND CAPACITOR DIVIDERS - PART 1: COMMON CLAUSES
    EN IEC/IEEE 65700 : 2018 BUSHINGS FOR DC APPLICATION (IEC/IEEE 65700-19-03:2014)
    I.S. EN 62772:2016 COMPOSITE HOLLOW CORE STATION POST INSULATORS FOR SUBSTATIONS WITH A.C. VOLTAGE GREATER THAN 1000 V AND D.C. VOLTAGE GREATER THAN 1500 V - DEFINITIONS, TEST METHODS AND ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA
    PD IEC/TS 62896:2015 Hybrid insulators for a.c. and d.c. high-voltage applications. Definitions, test methods and acceptance criteria
    BS EN 62271-207:2012 High-voltage switchgear and controlgear Seismic qualification for gas-insulated switchgear assemblies for rated voltages above 52 kV
    16/30318517 DC : 0 BS EN 60137 ED. 7.0 - INSULATED BUSHINGS FOR ALTERNATING VOLTAGES ABOVE 1000 V
    CSA C60044-7 : 2007 : R2011 INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS - PART 7: ELECTRONIC VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS
    CSA C60044-7 : 2007 INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS - PART 7: ELECTRONIC VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS
    CSA C60044-1 : 2007 : R2011 INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS - PART 1: CURRENT TRANSFORMERS
    CSA C60044-1 : 2007 INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS - PART 1: CURRENT TRANSFORMERS
    PREN 50180 : DRAFT 2009 BUSHINGS ABOVE 1 KV UP TO 52 KV AND FROM 250 A TO 3,15 KA FOR LIQUID FILLED TRANSFORMERS
    CEI EN 62271-205 : 2012 HIGH-VOLTAGE SWITCHGEAR AND CONTROLGEAR - PART 205: COMPACT SWITCHGEAR ASSEMBLIES FOR RATED VOLTAGES ABOVE 52 KV
    I.S. EN 50386:2010 BUSHINGS UP TO 1 KV AND FROM 250 A TO 5 KA, FOR LIQUID FILLED TRANSFORMERS
    EN 60358-1 : 2012 COUPLING CAPACITORS AND CAPACITOR DIVIDERS - PART 1: GENERAL RULES (IEC 60358-1:2012)
    IEC 62271-203:2011 High-voltage switchgear and controlgear - Part 203: Gas-insulated metal-enclosed switchgear for rated voltages above 52 kV
    IEC 62772:2016 Composite hollow core station post insulators for substations with a.c. voltage greater than 1 000 V and d.c. voltage greater than 1 500 V - Definitions, test methods and acceptance criteria
    IEC 60358-1:2012 Coupling capacitors and capacitor dividers - Part 1: General rules
    IEC 62199:2004 Bushings for d.c. application
    IEC 62146-1:2013+AMD1:2016 CSV Grading capacitors for high-voltage alternating current circuit-breakers - Part 1: General
    IEC 62271-205:2008 High-voltage switchgear and controlgear - Part 205: Compact switchgear assemblies for rated voltages above 52 kV
    EN 61462 : 2007 COMPOSITE HOLLOW INSULATORS - PRESSURIZED AND UNPRESSURIZED INSULATORS FOR USE IN ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT WITH RATED VOLTAGE GREATER THAN 1000 V - DEFINITIONS, TEST METHODS, ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA AND DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS
    CEI EN 62271-203 : 2013 HIGH-VOLTAGE SWITCHGEAR AND CONTROLGEAR - PART 203: GAS-INSULATED METAL-ENCLOSED SWITCHGEAR FOR RATED VOLTAGES ABOVE 52 KV
    NF EN 62146-1 : 2014 AMD 1 2016 GRADING CAPACITORS FOR HIGH-VOLTAGE ALTERNATING CURRENT CIRCUIT-BREAKERS - PART 1: GENERAL
    I.S. EN 50180-1:2015 BUSHINGS ABOVE 1 KV UP TO 52 KV AND FROM 250 A TO 3,15 KA FOR LIQUID FILLED TRANSFORMERS - PART 1: GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR BUSHINGS
    BS EN 62271-205:2008 High-voltage switchgear and controlgear Compact switchgear assemblies for rated voltages above 52 kV
    04/30112476 DC : DRAFT APR 2004
    CSA C60044-7 : 2007 : R2016 INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS - PART 7: ELECTRONIC VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS
    IEC TS 62896:2015 Hybrid insulators for a.c. and d.c. for high-voltage applications - Definitions, test methods and acceptance criteria
    CEI EN 61869-1 : 2010 INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS - PART 1: GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
    I.S. EN IEC/IEEE 65700:2018 BUSHINGS FOR DC APPLICATION
    CEI EN 60137 : 2009 INSULATED BUSHINGS FOR ALTERNATING VOLTAGES ABOVE 1000 V
    I.S. EN 62271-203:2012 HIGH-VOLTAGE SWITCHGEAR AND CONTROLGEAR - PART 203: GAS-INSULATED METAL-ENCLOSED SWITCHGEAR FOR RATED VOLTAGES ABOVE 52 KV (IEC 62271-203:2011 (EQV))
    IEC 61869-1:2007 Instrument transformers - Part 1: General requirements
    IEC 60137 REDLINE : 7ED 2017 INSULATED BUSHINGS FOR ALTERNATING VOLTAGES ABOVE 1000 V
    IEC 62271-207:2012 High-voltage switchgear and controlgear - Part 207: Seismic qualification for gas-insulated switchgear assemblies for rated voltages above 52 kV
    EN 62271-207:2012 HIGH-VOLTAGE SWITCHGEAR AND CONTROLGEAR - PART 207: SEISMIC QUALIFICATION FOR GAS-INSULATED SWITCHGEAR ASSEMBLIES FOR RATED VOLTAGES ABOVE 52 KV (IEC 62271-207:2012)
    EN 62146-1:2014/A1:2016 GRADING CAPACITORS FOR HIGH-VOLTAGE ALTERNATING CURRENT CIRCUIT-BREAKERS - PART 1: GENERAL (IEC 62146-1:2013/A1:2016)
    EN 61869-1 : 2009 INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS - PART 1: GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
    EN 50386:2010/A1:2013 BUSHINGS UP TO 1 KV AND FROM 250 A TO 5 KA, FOR LIQUID FILLED TRANSFORMERS
    EN 50180-1:2015 (edition 2) Bushings above 1 kV up to 52 kV and from 250 A to 3,15 kA for liquid filled transformers - Part 1: General requirements for bushings
    EN 62271-203:2012 High-voltage switchgear and controlgear - Part 203: Gas-insulated metal-enclosed switchgear for rated voltages above 52 kV

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    IEC 62271-100:2008+AMD1:2012+AMD2:2017 CSV High-voltage switchgear and controlgear - Part 100: Alternating-current circuit-breakers
    ISO 4287:1997 Geometrical Product Specifications (GPS) — Surface texture: Profile method — Terms, definitions and surface texture parameters
    IEC TS 61462:1998 Composite insulators - Hollow insulators for use in outdoor and indoor electrical equipment - Definitions, test methods, acceptance criteria and design recommendations
    IEC 60050-471:2007 International Electrotechnical Vocabulary (IEV) - Part 471: Insulators
    ISO 1101:2017 Geometrical product specifications (GPS) — Geometrical tolerancing — Tolerances of form, orientation, location and run-out
    IEC 60672-3:1997 Ceramic and glass-insulating materials - Part 3: Specifications for individual materials
    ISO 1463:2003 Metallic and oxide coatings Measurement of coating thickness Microscopical method
    ISO 1461:2009 Hot dip galvanized coatings on fabricated iron and steel articles — Specifications and test methods
    IEC 61166:1993 High-voltage alternating current circuit-breakers - Guide for seismic qualification of high-voltage alternating current circuit-breakers
    IEC 60694:1996+AMD1:2000+AMD2:2001 CSV Common specifications for high-voltage switchgear and controlgear standards
    IEC 60865-1:2011 Short-circuit currents - Calculation of effects - Part 1: Definitions and calculation methods
    IEC TR 60865-2:2015 Short-circuit currents - Calculation of effects - Part 2: Examples of calculation
    IEC 60437:1997 Radio interference test on high-voltage insulators
    ISO 9004:2009 Managing for the sustained success of an organization A quality management approach
    IEC TS 61245:2015 Artificial pollution tests on high-voltage ceramic and glass insulators to be used on d.c. systems
    IEC 60273:1990 Characteristic of indoor and outdoor post insulators for systems with nominal voltages greater than 1000 V
    ISO 9001:2015 Quality management systems - Requirements
    ISO 2178:2016 Non-magnetic coatings on magnetic substrates Measurement of coating thickness Magnetic method
    ISO 9003:1994 Quality systems Model for quality assurance in final inspection and test
    ISO 1460:1992 Metallic coatings Hot dip galvanized coatings on ferrous materials Gravimetric determination of the mass per unit area
    IEC 60507:2013 Artificial pollution tests on high-voltage ceramic and glass insulators to be used on a.c. systems
    ISO 2064:1996 Metallic and other inorganic coatings Definitions and conventions concerning the measurement of thickness
    IEC TS 61463:2016 Bushings - Seismic qualification
    IEC 60672-1:1995 Ceramic and glass insulating materials - Part 1: Definitions and classification
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