• AS 1955.1-1977

    Superseded A superseded Standard is one, which is fully replaced by another Standard, which is a new edition of the same Standard.

    Semiconductor Convertors General

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF 1 User, PDF 3 Users, PDF 5 Users, PDF 9 Users

    Superseded date:  30-06-2017

    Language(s):  English

    Published date:  01-07-1977

    Publisher:  Standards Australia

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    Table of Contents - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    1 - AS 1955 Part 1-1977 SEMICONDUCTOR CONVEERTORS - GENERAL
    4 - PREFACE
    5 - CONTENTS
    6 - SECTION 1. GENERAL
    6 - 1.1 Scope
    6 - 1.2 Application
    6 - 1.3 Reference to Other Specifications.
    7 - 1.4 List of Principal Letter Symbols
    7 - 1.4.1 General
    7 - 1.4.2 List of Subscripts
    7 - 1.4.3 List of Symbols
    10 - 1.5 General Terms
    10 - 1.5.1 Semiconductor rectifier diode (abbreviated to diode)
    10 - 1.5.2 Reverse blocking triode thyristor
    10 - 1.5.3 Diode stack
    10 - 1.5.4 Thyristor stack
    10 - 1.5.5 Diode assembly
    10 - 1.5.6 Thyristor assembly
    11 - 1.5.7 Convertor equipment (or convertor)
    11 - 1.5.8 Trigger equipment
    11 - 1.5.9 System control equipment
    11 - 1.5.10 Convertor circuit element
    11 - 1.5.11 By-pass diode (thyristor)
    11 - 1.5.12 Convertor connection
    11 - 1.5.13 Rectifier connection
    11 - 1.5.14 Single-way connection (for examples, see Table II)
    12 - 1.5.15 Double-way connection (for examples, see Table II)
    12 - 1.5.16 Reversible power convertor (see also Clause 6.10)
    12 - 1.5.17 Single-convertor (see Table II)
    12 - 1.5.18 Double-convertor (see Table II)
    12 - 1.5.19 Series convertor
    12 - 1.5.20 Cascade convertor
    12 - 1.5.21 Convertor with sequence control
    12 - 1.5.22 Line or machine-commutated convertor
    12 - 1.5.23 Commutation
    13 - 1.5.24 Pulse number p
    13 - 1.5.25 Commutating number q
    13 - 1.5.26 Commutating group
    13 - 1.5.27 Commutating voltages (commutating electromotive force)
    13 - 1.5.28 Margin of commutation g (margin angle)
    13 - 1.5.29 Overlap (angle) u
    14 - 1.5.30 Delay angle a (Figure 1)
    14 - 1.5.31 Inherent delay angle ap
    14 - 1.5.32 Ideal crest no-load voltage Ui0m
    14 - 1.5.33 Ideal crest voltage Uim
    14 - 1.5.34 Equilibrium temperature
    14 - 1.5.35 Designation of transformer windings
    14 - 1.6 Definitions of rated values
    14 - 1.6.1 Rated value
    14 - 1.6.2 Definitions of rated values for convertor transformers
    15 - 1.6.3 Definitions of rated values for assemblies and equipments
    16 - 1.7 Efficiency definitions
    16 - 1.7.1 Conversion factor
    16 - 1.7.2 Power efficiency
    16 - 1.8 Terms used in connection with convertor faults
    16 - 1.8.1 Commutation failure
    16 - 1.8.2 Conduction-through (shoot-through)
    17 - 1.8.3 Missing
    17 - 1.8.4 Breakthrough
    17 - 1.8.5 Breakdown
    17 - 1.9 Factors on a. c. side
    17 - 1.9.1 Total power factor l
    18 - 1.9.2 Power factor of the fundamental wave or displacement factor, cos j
    18 - 1.9.3 Distortion factor v
    18 - 1.10 Terms used in connection with voltage regulation
    18 - 1.10.1 Conventional no-load direct voltage U d0
    18 - 1.10.2 Ideal no-load direct voltage Udi0
    18 - 1.10.3 Controlled ideal no-load direct voltage U di0a
    19 - 1.10.4 Controlled conventional no-load direct voltage U d0a
    19 - 1.10.5 Real no-load direct voltage U d00
    19 - 1.10.6 Transition current
    19 - 1.10.7 Voltage regulation
    20 - 1.10.8 Corrected voltage regulation (stabilization)
    20 - 1.10.9 Output effect
    20 - 1.11 Terms used in connection with cooling
    20 - 1.11.1 Cooling terms
    21 - 1.11.2 Temperature definitions
    21 - 1.12 Service conditions
    21 - 1.13 A. C. system conditions
    21 - 1.13.1 Waveform of alternating voltages
    22 - 1.13.2 Symmetry of polyphase systems
    22 - 1.13.3 A.C. system impedance
    22 - 1.14 Temperature and cooling conditions
    22 - 1.14.1 Temperature limits of cooling media for assemblies
    22 - 1.15 Character of load
    22 - 1.16 Usual service conditions
    22 - 1.16.1 A.C line voltage variations
    23 - 1.16.2 A.C. line frequency variations of ± 2%
    23 - 1.16.3 Storage down to -10°C (with cooling liquid removed)
    23 - 1.16.4 Operation including off-load periods down to:
    23 - 1.16.5 An ambient temperature or cooling air temperature which does not exceed 40°C in the case of air cooling
    23 - 1.16.6 An incoming cooling liquid temperature which does not exceed 30°C in the case of liquid cooling
    23 - 1.17 Unusual service conditions
    24 - 1.18 Performance of tests
    24 - 1.19 Classification of tests
    24 - 1.19.1 Type tests
    24 - 1.19.2 Routine tests
    25 - SECTION 2. SEMICONDUCTOR RECTIFIER DIODES AND THYRISTORS
    25 - 2.1 General
    26 - SECTION 3. TRANSFORMERS AND REACTORS
    26 - 3.1 General
    26 - 3.2 Rated values for convertor transformers
    26 - 3.2.1 Rated current values
    26 - 3.3 Temperature limits of cooling media
    27 - 3.4 Losses and voltage drops in transformers and reactors
    27 - 3.4.1 Losses in the transformer windings
    27 - 3.5 Losses in interphase transformers, current-balancing reactors, series-smoothing reactors, transductors and other curren
    27 - 3.5.1 Interphase transformer
    27 - 3.5.2 Current balancing reactors
    27 - 3.5.3 Series-smoothing reactor
    27 - 3.5.4 Transductors and other current regulating reactors
    28 - 3.6 Voltage drops in transformers and reactors
    28 - 3.7 Tests for convertor transformers
    28 - 3.8 Measurement of commutating reactance and determination of inductive voltage drop (type test)
    29 - 3.9 Short-circuit test (type test and routine test)
    29 - 3.10 Temperature-rise test (type test)
    31 - SECTION 4. CONVERTOR EQUIPMENTS AND ASSEMBLIES
    31 - 4.1 Electrical connections and calculation factors
    31 - 4.1.1 Electrical connections
    31 - 4.1.2 Calculation factors
    35 - 4.2 Losses and efficiency, power factor and conversion factor
    35 - 4.2.1 General about losses and efficiency
    35 - 4.2.2 Included losses
    36 - 4.2.3 Not-included losses
    36 - 4.3 Power factor
    41 - 4.4 Conversion factor
    42 - 4.5 Voltage regulation
    42 - 4.5.1 Inherent direct voltage regulation
    44 - 4.5.2 Direct voltage regulation due to a. c. system impedance
    47 - 4.5.3 Influence of existing convertors on d.c. voltage regulation on new plant to be installed
    47 - 4.6 Harmonics in currents and voltages and associated effects
    47 - 4.6.1 General
    47 - 4.6.2 Order of harmonics
    48 - 4.6.3 Harmonics in line current
    48 - 4.6.4 Ripple voltage on the d.c. side
    52 - 4.7 Symbols used in Figures 9 to 17
    53 - 4.8 Alternating current components in d. c. load with a.c. impedance (capacitive load)
    53 - 4.9 Circulating alternating currents in double convertors
    53 - 4.10 Interference with other electrical equipment
    53 - 4.10.1 General
    54 - 4.10.2 For recommendations regarding interference with telephone lines, reference is made to the publications of C.C.I.T.T. and EEI-BTS mentioned in Clause 4.6.4.4.
    54 - 4.11 Protection
    54 - 4.11.1 Fault current protection
    55 - 4.12 Overvoltage protection
    55 - 4.12.1 Internal voltage surge
    55 - 4.12.2 External voltage surge
    55 - 4.13 Rated values for assemblies and equipments
    55 - 4.13.1 General
    56 - 4.13.2 Rated direct voltage
    56 - 4.14 Rated current values
    56 - 4.14.1 Current values to be specified
    56 - 4.14.2 Duty classes
    57 - 4.14.3 Basis of rated current values
    58 - 4.14.4 Determination of requirements for rated current values
    60 - 4.15 Particular remarks for double convertors
    60 - 4.16 Tests for diode assemblies and rectifier equipments
    60 - 4.16.1 General
    61 - 4.16.2 Power loss determination for diode assemblies and rectifier equipments
    65 - 4.17 Tests on small convertor equipments
    65 - 4.17.1 Measurement of the inherent voltage regulation
    65 - 4.17.2 Power loss measurements
    66 - 4.17.3 Power factor measurements
    66 - 4.17.4 Temperature-rise tests
    66 - 4.18 Tests for thyristor assemblies and thyristor convertor equipments
    66 - 4.18.1 General
    67 - 4.19 Test specifications
    67 - 4.19.1 Insulation tests
    68 - 4.19.2 Light-load test
    68 - 4.19.3 Current test
    69 - 4.19.4 Checking of auxiliary devices
    69 - 4.19.5 Power loss determination
    70 - 4.19.6 Temperature-rise test
    70 - 4.19.7 Load test
    70 - 4.19.8 Checking the properties of the trigger equipment
    71 - 4.19.9 Checking the co-ordination of protective devices
    71 - 4.19.10 Checking properties under unusual service conditions
    71 - 4.19.11 Checking properties of incorporated stabilization means
    72 - SECTION 5. TOLERANCES
    73 - SECTION 6. PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS AND APPLICATION INFORMATIONS
    73 - 6.1 Parallel or series connection of diodes or thyristors
    73 - 6.2 Current balancing of parallel connected devices
    73 - 6.3 Voltage division for series connected devices
    73 - 6.4 Parallel or series operation of assemblies and equipments
    73 - 6.4.1 Parallel operation
    73 - 6.4.2 Series operation
    73 - 6.5 Auxiliaries to rectifier or convertor equipments
    74 - 6.6 Voltage limits for reliable commutation in inverter mode of operation
    74 - 6.7 Overload conditions
    74 - 6.7.1 Presentation of rated overload current values
    75 - 6.7.2 Determination of overload capability through calculation of virtual junction temperature
    75 - 6.8 Stabilization
    75 - 6.8.1 Static properties
    75 - 6.8.2 Dynamic properties of the control system
    76 - 6.9 Mode of operation of single and double convertors
    76 - 6.9.1 Single convertor connection
    78 - 6.9.2 Double convertor connections
    78 - 6.9.3 Transition current
    80 - 6.9.4 Working limit lines for rectifier and inverter operation
    80 - 6.9.5 Suppression of circulating direct current in double convertor connections
    81 - 6.9.6 Suppression of circulating alternating current in double convertor connections
    81 - 6.10 Principle of operation for reversible convertors for control of d. c. motors
    81 - 6.10. 1 Motor field reversal
    81 - 6.10. 2 Motor armature reversal by reversing switch
    81 - 6.10. 3 Double convertor connection to motor armature
    83 - 6.11 Circuit operating conditions affecting the voltage applied across convertor circuit elements
    84 - SECTION 7. MARKINGS ON CONVERTOR EQUIPMENTS AND ASSEMBLIES
    84 - 7.1 Markings
    84 - 7.2 Rating plate
    84 - 7.2.1 Rating plates of equipments
    85 - 7.2.2 Rating plates of assemblies
    85 - 7.2.3 Rating plates of convertor transformers
    85 - 7.2.4 Items which may be added if appropriate
    86 - APPENDIX A - SEMICONDUCTOR RECTIFIER DIODES AND DIODE STACKS
    86 - A1 Definitions
    88 - A2 Rated values and characteristics
    92 - A3 Tests for diodes and diode stacks
    101 - A4 Marking
    102 - APPENDIX B - THYRISTORS AND THYRISTOR STACKS
    102 - B1 Definitions
    107 - B2 Rated values and characteristics
    112 - B3 Tests for thyristors and thyristor stacks
    130 - B4 Marking
    131 - APPENDIX C - CORRECTIONS TO BE APPLIED WHEN COOLING MEDIUM TEMPERATURE IS HIGHER THAN STANDARD
    131 - C1 General Application.
    132 - APPENDIX D - DETERMINATION OF OVERLOAD CAPABILITY THROUGH CALCULATION OF VIRTUAL JUNCTION TEMPERATURE
    132 - D1 Definitions and letter symbols used for the calculations
    132 - D2 Approximation of the shape for power pulse applied to the semiconductor device
    133 - D3 The superposition method for calculation of temperature
    134 - D4 Calculation of virtual junction temperature for continuous load
    135 - D5 Calculation of virtual junction temperature for cycling load
    136 - D6 Calculation formulae for a few typical applications

    Abstract - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Defines the terminology and specifies letter symbols, requirements and test for use with semiconductor diodes and thyristors. The Standard is based on and is technically similar to IEC 146-1.

    Scope - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    This standard specifies requirements for semicondutor rectifiers, diodes and thyristors, convertor* transformers and reactors, and convertor equipments and assemblies together with tolerances on rated values and conditions, and performance requirements and application information. In addition, letter symbols and definitions are provided for terms used in conjunction with such devices and equipments.ApplicationThis standard applies to static power convertors of the line- or machine-commutated type for conversion from a.c. to d.c. or from d.c. to a.c., i.e. rectifiers, inverters and convertors embodying both modes of operation. It applies also to convertors for control of alternating voltage and convertors in which the commutating voltage is supplied by the load circuit, e.g. a resonating load.The standard is restricted to convertors with semiconductor rectifier diodes, reverse blocking triode thyristors or a combination of these, but it may also be applied for convertors with bidirectional thyristors in so far as applicable. The term 'thyristor' is used in the standard as an abbreviation for reverse blocking triode thyristor.The standard does not apply to convertors in which the commutating voltage is supplied by internal sources, e g. capacitors, frequency convertors, convertors used in telecommunication apparatus other than for power supplied to such equipment, to auxiliaries of measuring instruments, or system control equipments for control of static power convertors.Special kinds of convertors, e.g. convertors for adjustable speed d.c. motor drives, power convertors for electric traction, convertors for control of alternating voltage, self-commutated inverters, d.c. to d.c. convertors, etc, are not covered by this standard.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee EL-027
    Document Type Standard
    Publisher Standards Australia
    Status Superseded
    Superseded By
    Under Revision

    History - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Reconfirmed 1983Under revision See DR 02098-02100 CP

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    AS 2735-1984 Dry-type power transformers
    AS 61800.3-2001 Adjustable speed electrical power drive systems - EMC product standard including specific test methods
    AS 1028-1992 Power reactors and earthing transformers
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