• AS 60146.1.1-2002

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    Semiconductor converters General requirements and line commutated converters - Specifications of basic requirements

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF 1 User, PDF 3 Users, PDF 5 Users, PDF 9 Users

    Language(s):  English

    Published date:  04-07-2002

    Publisher:  Standards Australia

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    Table of Contents - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    1 - AS 60146.1.1-2002 SEMICONDUCTOR CONVERTERS - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS AND LINE COMMUTATED CONVERTERS-SPECIFICATIONS OF BASIC REQU
    4 - PREFACE
    5 - CONTENTS
    9 - Section 1 - General
    9 - 1.1 Scope and object
    10 - 1.2 Normative references
    11 - 1.3 Classification of semiconductor power equipment and valves
    11 - 1.3.1 Classification of semiconductor power equipment
    13 - 1.3.2 Classification of semiconductor valves
    13 - 1.4 List of principal letter symbols and subscripts
    13 - 1.4.1 List of subscripts
    13 - 1.4.2 List of symbols (self evident symbols are not listed)
    15 - 1.5 Definitions
    15 - 1.5.1 Semiconductor device (IEV 551-03-05, modified)
    15 - 1.5.2 Power semiconductor diode
    15 - 1.5.3 Thyristor
    16 - 1.5.4 Reverse blocking triode thyristor
    16 - 1.5.5 Reverse conducting triode thyristor
    16 - 1.5.6 Bidirectional triode thyristor (triac)
    16 - 1.5.7 Turn-off thyristor (GTO = Gate Turn Off)
    16 - 1.5.8 Combination of semiconductor devices
    16 - 1.5.9 Converter circuit elements
    17 - 1.5.10 Converter connection (IEV 551-04-17)
    17 - 1.5.11 Controllability of converter arms
    17 - 1.5.12 Quadrants of operation (on d.c. side)
    17 - 1.5.13 Commutation and quenching (see figure 1)
    18 - 1.5.14 Type of commutation
    18 - 1.5.15 Self commutation (IEV 551-05-06)
    18 - 1.5.16 Type of quenching
    19 - 1.5.17 Commutation circuit (IEV 551- 05- 09)
    19 - 1.5.18 Trigger delay angle alpha (IEV 551-05-29, modified)
    20 - 1.5.19 Trigger advance angle beta
    20 - 1.5.20 Inherent delay angle alpha subscript p
    20 - 1.5.21 Extinction angle gamma (IEV 551-05-30, modified)
    21 - 1.5.22 Definitions of rated values
    22 - 1.5.23 Definitions of rated values for assemblies and equipment
    22 - 1.5.24 Efficiency definitions
    22 - 1.5.25 Terms used in connection with converter faults
    22 - 1.5.26 Factors on the a.c. side
    23 - 1.5.27 Terms used in connection with d.c. voltage
    24 - 1.5.28 Terms used in connection with direct voltage regulation
    25 - 1.5.29 Definitions related to cooling
    26 - 1.5.30 Temperature definitions
    26 - 1.5.31 Electrical disturbance
    26 - 1.5.32 Level of immunity of a converter
    27 - 1.5.33 Level of generated disturbance of a converter
    27 - 1.5.34 Reference level of generated disturbance of a converter
    27 - 1.5.35 Relative short- circuit power, Rsc
    27 - 1.5.36 Compatibility of a system
    27 - 1.5.37 Types and characteristics of common disturbances
    28 - 1.5.38 Harmonic distortion (IEV 551-06-07)
    29 - Section 2 - Service conditions
    29 - 2.1 Code of identification for cooling method
    29 - 2.1.1 Letter symbols to be used
    29 - 2.1.2 Arrangement of letter symbols
    30 - 2.2 Environmental conditions
    30 - 2.2.1 Ambient air circulation
    30 - 2.2.2 Normal service conditions
    31 - 2.2.3 Unusual service conditions
    32 - 2.3 Electrical service conditions
    32 - 2.3.1 Electrical environment specification
    32 - 2.3.2 Unknown site conditions
    32 - 2.4 Character of the load
    33 - 2.5 Electrical service conditions as a basis of ratings
    33 - 2.5.1 Frequency
    33 - 2.5.2 A.C. voltage
    33 - 2.5.3 Voltage unbalance
    34 - 2.5.4 A.C. voltage wave form
    36 - Section 3 - Converter equipment and assemblies
    36 - 3.1 Electrical connection and calculation factors
    36 - 3.1.1 Standard design converters
    36 - 3.1.2 Special design converters
    36 - 3.2 Calculation factors
    36 - 3.2.1 Voltage ratio
    36 - 3.2.2 Line side current factor
    38 - 3.2.3 Voltage regulation
    38 - 3.2.4 Magnetic circuit
    38 - 3.2.5 Power loss factor
    38 - 3.3 Losses and efficiency
    38 - 3.3.1 General
    38 - 3.3.2 Included losses
    39 - 3.3.3 Not included losses
    39 - 3.4 Power factor
    39 - 3.4.1 General
    40 - 3.4.2 Power, reactive power, apparent power and displacement factor
    40 - 3.5 Voltage regulation
    40 - 3.5.1 Inherent direct voltage regulation
    41 - 3.5.2 Influence of other converters
    41 - 3.5.3 Twelve-pulse converters
    41 - 3.5.4 Boost and buck connection converters (series connection)
    41 - 3.6 Harmonics in line currents and voltages
    41 - 3.6.1 Order of harmonics
    42 - 3.6.2 Amplification of harmonic currents
    42 - 3.7 Direct voltage harmonic content
    42 - 3.8 A.C. current in the direct current output
    42 - 3.9 Interference
    42 - 3.9.1 Interference with in-plant low current control and communication lines
    42 - 3.9.2 Interference with telephone and communication links
    43 - 3.10 Rated values for converters
    43 - 3.10.1 General
    43 - 3.10.2 Rated output voltage
    43 - 3.10.3 Rated current values
    47 - 3.10.4 Particular remarks for double converters
    47 - 3.11 Markings
    47 - 3.11.1 Clear indication of manufacturer or supplier
    47 - 3.11.2 Indication of the type of equipment
    47 - 3.11.3 Marking of the input and output terminals of the main circuit
    47 - 3.11.4 Rating plate
    49 - Section 4 - Tests for valve device assemblies and converter equipment
    49 - 4.1 General
    49 - 4.1.1 Type tests
    49 - 4.1.2 Routine tests
    49 - 4.1.3 Performance of tests
    49 - 4.1.4 Test schedule
    50 - 4.2 Test specifications
    50 - 4.2.1 Insulation tests
    53 - 4.2.2 Light load and functional test
    53 - 4.2.3 Rated current test
    53 - 4.2.4 Power loss determination for assemblies and equipment
    54 - 4.2.5 Temperature rise test
    55 - 4.2.6 Power factor measurements
    55 - 4.2.7 Checking of auxiliary devices
    55 - 4.2.8 Measurement of the inherent voltage regulation
    55 - 4.2.9 Checking the properties of the control equipment
    55 - 4.2.10 Checking the protective devices
    56 - 4.2.11 Immunity test
    56 - 4.2.12 Overcurrent capability test
    56 - 4.2.13 Radio frequency generated interference and conducted noise
    56 - 4.2.14 Audible noise
    56 - 4.2.15 Measurement of ripple voltage and current
    56 - 4.2.16 Additional tests
    56 - 4.3 Tolerances
    58 - Annex A - Index of definitions
    62 - Annex B - Bibliography

    Abstract - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Specifies the requirements for the performance of all electronic power converters and electronic power switches using electric valves (e.g. diodes, thyristors, transistors and triacs). This Standard has been reproduced from and is technically identical to IEC 60146-1-1:1991.

    Scope - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    This International Standard specifies the requirements for the performance of all electronic power converters and electronic power switches using controllable and/or non-controllable electronic valves.The electronic valves mainly comprise semiconductor devices, i.e. diodes and various types of thyristors and transistors, such as reverse blocking or conducting thyristors, turn-off thyristors, triacs and power transistors. The devices may be controlled by means of current, voltage or light. Non-bistable devices are assumed to be operated in the switched mode.This standard is primarily intended to specify the requirements applicable to line commutated converters for conversion of a.c. power to d.c. power or vice versa. Parts of this standard are applicable also to other types of electronic power converters and should be regarded as a standard for them in so far as it is not in contradiction to additional IEC Standards for particular types of semiconductor converters given in existing or future IEC Publications.These specific equipment requirements are applicable to semiconductor power converters that either implement different types of power conversion or use different types of commutation (for example semiconductor self-commutated converters) or involve particular applications (for example semiconductor converters for d.c. motor drives) or include a combination of said characteristics (for example direct d.c. converters for electric rolling stock).The main purposes of this standard are as follows:Part 1-1, IEC 146-1-1, Specifications of basic requirements.- to establish basic terms and definitions;- to specify service conditions which influence the basis of rating;- to specify test requirements for complete converter equipment and assemblies, standard design, (for special design see IEC 146-1-2);- to specify basic performance requirements;- to give application oriented requirements for semiconductor power converters.Part 1-2, IEC 146-1-2, Application guide- to give additional information on test conditions and components, (for example: semiconductor devices), when required for their use in semiconductor power converters, in addition to, or as a modification on, existing standards;- to provide useful reference, calculation factors, formulae and diagrams pertaining to power converter practice.Part 1-3, IEC 146-1-3, Transformers and reactors- to give additional information on characteristics wherein converter transformers differ from ordinary power transformers. In all other respects, the rules specified in IEC 76, shall apply to converter transformers, as far as they are not in contradiction with this standard.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee EL-027
    Document Type Standard
    Product Note This standard has been reconfirmed in Australia in 2013 and remains current in New Zealand. Reconfirmation Notice 13-01-2014
    Publisher Standards Australia
    Status Current
    Supersedes

    History - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    First published as part of AS 1955.1-1977.Revised and redesignated in part as AS 60146.1.1-2002.Reconfirmed 2013. First published as part of AS 1955.1-1977. Revised and redesignated in part as AS 60146.1.1-2002.

    Standards Referenced By This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    AS/NZS 61000.3.2:1998 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) Limits - Limits for harmonic current emissions (equipment input current less than or equal to 16 A per phase)
    AS 2374.1-1997 Power transformers General
    AS 2374.3.0-1982 Power transformers Insulation levels and dielectric tests - General requirements
    AS 1852.601-1988 International electrotechnical vocabulary Generation, transmission and distribution of electricity - General
    AS 2374.7-1997 Power transformers - Loading guide for oil-immersed power transformers
    AS 2374.3.1-1992 Power transformers Insulation levels and dielectric test - External clearances in air
    AS 2374.8-2000 Power transformers Application guide
    AS 2374.6-1994 Power transformers - Determination of transformer and reactor sound levels
    AS 1852.441-1985 International electrotechnical vocabulary - Switchgear, controlgear and fuses
    AS 1852.151-1988 International electrotechnical vocabulary - Electric and magnetic devices
    AS 2374.4-1982 Power transformers - Tappings and connections
    AS 2374.5-1982 Power Transformers Ability To Withstand Short-Circuit
    AS 2374.2-1997 Power transformers Temperature rise

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    AS 62040.3-2002 Uninterruptible power systems (UPS) Method of specifying the performance and test requirements
    AS 60146.1.3-2002 Semiconductor converters General requirements and line commutated converters - Transformers and reactors
    AS 62103-2006 Electronic equipment for use in power installations
    AS/NZS 3000:2007 Electrical installations (known as the Australian/New Zealand Wiring Rules)
    AS 61800.3-2005 Adjustable speed electrical power drive systems EMC requirements and specific test methods
    AS 61800.4-2007 Adjustable speed electrical power drive systems General requirements - Rating specifications for a.c. power drive systems above 1000 V a.c. and not exceeding 35 kV (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS 61800.1-2007 Adjustable speed electrical power drive systems General requirements - Rating specifications for low voltage adjustable speed d.c. power drive systems (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS 61800.2-2004 Adjustable speed electrical power drive systems General requirements - Rating specifications for low voltage adjustable frequency a.c. power drive systems
    AS 61800.6-2007 Adjustable speed electrical power drive systems - Guide for determination of types of load duty and corresponding current ratings
    AS/NZS 3000:2018 (Unamended Hardcopy + Amendments) Electrical installations (known as the Australian/New Zealand Wiring Rules)
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