• IEC 60422:2013

    Current The latest, up-to-date edition.

    Mineral insulating oils in electrical equipment - Supervision and maintenance guidance

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF, PDF 3 Users, PDF 5 Users, PDF 9 Users

    Language(s): 

    Published date:  10-01-2013

    Publisher:  International Electrotechnical Committee

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    Table of Contents - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    FOREWORD
    INTRODUCTION
    1 Scope
    2 Normative references
    3 Terms and definitions
    4 Properties and deterioration/degradation of oil
    5 Oil tests and their significance
    6 Sampling of oil from equipment
    7 Categories of equipment
    8 Evaluation of mineral insulating oil in new equipment
    9 Evaluation of oil in service
    10 Handling and storage
    11 Treatment
    12 Replacement of oil in electrical equipment
    13 Passivation
    Annex A (informative) - Evaluating water in oil and
            insulation
    Annex B (informative) - Particles
    Annex C (informative) - Test method for determination of
            sediment and sludge
    Bibliography

    Abstract - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    IEC 60422:2013 gives guidance on the supervision and maintenance of the quality of the insulating oil in electrical equipment. This International Standard is applicable to mineral insulating oils, originally supplied conforming to IEC 60296, in transformers, switchgear and other electrical apparatus where oil sampling is reasonably practicable and where the normal operating conditions specified in the equipment specifications apply. This International Standard is also intended to assist the power equipment operator to evaluate the condition of the oil and maintain it in a serviceable condition. It also provides a common basis for the preparation of more specific and complete local codes of practice. The standard includes recommendations on tests and evaluation procedures and outlines methods for reconditioning and reclaiming oil and the decontamination of oil contaminated with PCBs. This fourth edition cancels and replaces the third edition, published in 2005, and constitutes a technical revision. The main changes with respect to the previous edition are as follows:
    - This new edition represents a major revision of the third edition, in order to bring in line this standard with latest development of oil condition monitoring, containing new limits for oil parameters, suggested corrective actions in the tables and new test methods.
    - The action limits for all oil tests have been revised and changes made where necessary to enable users to use current methodology and comply with requirements and regulations affecting safety and environmental aspects.
    - In addition, this standard incorporates changes introduced in associated standards since the third edition was published.The contents of the corrigendum of December 2013 have been included in this copy.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee TC 10
    Development Note Stability Date: 2019. (01/2013)
    Document Type Standard
    Publisher International Electrotechnical Committee
    Status Current
    Supersedes

    Standards Referenced By This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    02/209876 DC : DRAFT NOV 2002 IEC 62332 TS ED.1 - ELECTRICAL INSULATION SYSTEMS (EIS) - THERMAL EVALUATION OF COMBINED LIQUID AND SOLID COMPONENTS
    DD IEC TS 60076-14 : DRAFT 2009 POWER TRANSFORMERS - PART 14: DESIGN AND APPLICATION OF LIQUID-IMMERSED POWER TRANSFORMERS USING HIGH-TEMPERATURE INSULATION MATERIALS
    EN IEC 61125 : 2018 INSULATING LIQUIDS - TEST METHODS FOR OXIDATION STABILITY - TEST METHOD FOR EVALUATING THE OXIDATION STABILITY OF INSULATING LIQUIDS IN THE DELIVERED STATE (IEC 61125:2018)
    05/30133366 DC : DRAFT MAY 2005 EN 5XXXX BTTF 116-1 - STANDARD FOR THE INVENTORY, CONTROL, MANAGEMENT, DECONTAMINATION AND/OR DISPOSAL OF ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT AND INSULATING LIQUIDS CONTAINING PCBS
    11/30235371 DC : 0 BS EN 62701 - FLUIDS FOR ELECTRO TECHNICAL APPLICATIONS - RECYCLED MINERAL INSULATING OILS FOR TRANSFORMERS AND SWITCHGEARS
    BS EN 60044-5 : 2004 INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS - PART 5: CAPACITOR VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS
    BS EN 60358-1:2012 (published 2014-03) Coupling capacitors and capacitor dividers General rules
    14/30300746 DC : 0 BS EN 60358-4 ED 1.0 - COUPLING CAPACITORS AND CAPACITOR DIVIDERS - PART 4: AC AND DC SINGLE-PHASE CAPACITOR-DIVIDER AND RC-DIVIDER
    07/30161454 DC : 0 BS EN 60666 - DETECTION AND DETERMINATION OF SPECIFIED ADDITIVES IN MINERAL INSULATING OILS
    BS EN 61869-5 : 2011 INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS - PART 5: ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR CAPACITOR VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS
    CSA C61869-5 : 2015 INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS - PART 5: ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR CAPACITOR VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS
    UNE-EN 62770:2014 Fluids for electrotechnical applications - Unused natural esters for transformers and similar electrical equipment
    10/30233636 DC : 0 IEC 62697-1 ED.1 - INSULATING LIQUIDS - QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF CORROSIVE SULFUR COMPOUNDS IN USED AND UNUSED INSULATING LIQUIDS - PART 1: TEST METHOD FOR QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF DIBENZYL DISULFIDE (DBDS)
    17/30331680 DC : 0 BS ISO 18095 - CONDITION MONITORING AND DIAGNOSTICS OF POWER TRANSFORMERS
    CEI EN 60076-14 : 2014 POWER TRANSFORMERS - PART 14: LIQUID-IMMERSED POWER TRANSFORMERS USING HIGH-TEMPERATURE INSULATION MATERIALS
    BS EN IEC 61125:2018 Insulating liquids. Test methods for oxidation stability. Test method for evaluating the oxidation stability of insulating liquids in the delivered state
    BS EN 60076-14 : 2013 POWER TRANSFORMERS - PART 14: LIQUID-IMMERSED POWER TRANSFORMERS USING HIGH-TEMPERATURE INSULATION MATERIALS
    12/30257150 DC : 0 BS EN 62770 - FLUIDS FOR ELECTROTECHNICAL APPLICATIONS - UNUSED NATURAL ESTERS LIQUIDS FOR TRANSFORMERS AND SIMILAR ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
    BS EN 60970 : 2007 INSULATING LIQUIDS - METHODS FOR COUNTING AND SIZING PARTICLES
    BS EN 62770:2014 Fluids for electrotechnical applications. Unused natural esters for transformers and similar electrical equipment
    06/30159746 DC : 0 BS EN 50503 - FLUIDS FOR ELECTROTECHNICAL APPLICATIONS - STANDARD FOR THE INVENTORY CONTROL, MANAGEMENT, DECONTAMINATION AND/OR DISPOSAL OF ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT AND INSULATING LIQUIDS CONTAINING PCBS
    BS EN 50299-2 : 2014 OIL-IMMERSED CABLE CONNECTION ASSEMBLIES FOR TRANSFORMERS AND REACTORS HAVING HIGHEST VOLTAGE FOR EQUIPMENT UM FROM 72,5 KV TO 550 KV - PART 2: DRY-TYPE CABLE TERMINATIONS
    BS EN 62697-1:2012 Test methods for quantitative determination of corrosive sulphur compounds in unused and used insulating liquids Test method for quantitative determination of dibenzyldisulfide (DBDS)
    BS EN 60296 : 2012 FLUIDS FOR ELECTROTECHNICAL APPLICATIONS - UNUSED MINERAL INSULATING OILS FOR TRANSFORMERS AND SWITCHGEAR
    05/30138884 DC : DRAFT SEP 2005
    S.R. CLC/TR 50503:2010 GUIDELINES FOR THE INVENTORY CONTROL, MANAGEMENT, DECONTAMINATION AND/OR DISPOSAL OF ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT AND INSULATING LIQUIDS CONTAINING PCBS
    08/30183914 DC : DRAFT JUNE 2008 BS EN 60358-1 - COUPLING CAPACITORS AND CAPACITOR DIVIDERS - PART 1: COMMON CLAUSES
    BS EN 60666 : 2010 DETECTION AND DETERMINATION OF SPECIFIED ADDITIVES IN MINERAL INSULATING OILS
    BS PD IEC TR 62697-3 : 2018 TEST METHODS FOR QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF CORROSIVE SULFUR COMPOUNDS IN UNUSED AND USED INSULATING LIQUIDS - PART 3: TEST METHOD FOR QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF ELEMENTAL SULFUR
    13/30281716 DC : 0 BS EN 50299-2 - OIL-IMMERSED CABLE CONNECTION ASSEMBLIES FOR TRANSFORMERS AND REACTORS HAVING HIGHEST VOLTAGE FOR EQUIPMENT U[M] FROM 72,5 KV TO 550 KV - PART 2: DRY-TYPE CABLE TERMINATIONS
    BS IEC 61378-3 : 2015 CONVERTER TRANSFORMERS - PART 3: APPLICATION GUIDE
    02/211941 DC : 0 IEC 60076-14 ED.1 - GUIDE FOR THE DESIGN AND APPLICATION OF LIQUID-IMMERSED POWER TRANSFORMERS USING HIGH-TEMPERATURE INSULATION MATERIALS
    UNE-EN 60076-14:2014 Power transformers - Part 14: Liquid-immersed power transformers using high-temperature insulation materials
    04/30112722 DC : DRAFT APR 2004 IEC 60044-5 ED.1 - INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS - PART 5: CAPACITOR VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS
    12/30263868 DC : 0 BS EN 60076-14 - POWER TRANSFORMERS - PART 14: LIQUID-IMMERSED POWER TRANSFORMERS USING HIGH-TEMPERATURE INSULATION MATERIALS
    00/244591 DC : DRAFT OCT 2000 SPECIFICATION FOR UNUSED MINERAL INSULATING OILS FOR TRANSFORMERS AND SWITCHGEAR
    16/30318517 DC : 0 BS EN 60137 ED. 7.0 - INSULATED BUSHINGS FOR ALTERNATING VOLTAGES ABOVE 1000 V
    BS 5730(1979) : 1979 CODE OF PRACTICE FOR MAINTENANCE OF INSULATING OIL
    DD IEC TS 62332-1 : 2011 ELECTRICAL INSULATION SYSTEMS (EIS) - THERMAL EVALUATION OF COMBINED LIQUID AND SOLID COMPONENTS - PART 1: GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
    NBR 10576 : 2017 MINERAL OIL FOR ELECTRICAL INSULATION - GUIDELINES FOR MONITORING AND MAINTENANCE
    CEI EN 61869-5 : 2012 INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS - PART 5: ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR CAPACITOR VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS
    CEI EN 60970 : 2007 INSULATING LIQUIDS - METHODS FOR COUNTING AND SIZING PARTICLES
    CEI EN 60666 : 2011 DETECTION AND DETERMINATION OF SPECIFIED ADDITIVES IN MINERAL INSULATING OILS
    CEI EN 50299-2 : 2016 OIL-IMMERSED CABLE CONNECTION ASSEMBLIES FOR TRANSFORMERS AND REACTORS HAVING HIGHEST VOLTAGE FOR EQUIPMENT UM FROM 72,5 KV TO 550 KV - PART 2: DRY-TYPE CABLE TERMINATIONS
    I.S. EN 60044-5:2004 INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS - PART 5: CAPACITOR VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS
    CSA C60044-5:2007 INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS - PART 5: CAPACITOR VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS
    UNE-EN 60666:2011 Detection and determination of specified additives in mineral insulating oils
    CLC/TR 50503 : 2010 Guidelines for the inventory control, management, decontamination and/or disposal of electrical equipment and insulating liquids containing PCBs
    CSA C60044-5 : 2007 : R2011 INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS - PART 5: CAPACITOR VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS
    I.S. EN 62701:2014 FLUIDS FOR ELECTROTECHNICAL APPLICATIONS - RECYCLED MINERAL INSULATING OILS FOR TRANSFORMERS AND SWITCHGEARS
    IEC TR 62697-3:2018 Test methods for quantitative determination of corrosive sulfur compounds in unused and used insulating liquids - Part 3: Test method for quantitative determination of elemental sulfur
    IEEE C57.140 : 2006 EVALUATION AND RECONDITIONING OF LIQUID IMMERSED POWER TRANSFORMERS
    BS EN 60137 : 2017 INSULATED BUSHINGS FOR ALTERNATING VOLTAGES ABOVE 1000 V
    IEEE C37.10 : 2011 GUIDE FOR INVESTIGATION, ANALYSIS, AND REPORTING OF POWER CIRCUIT BREAKER FAILURES
    I.S. EN 50299-2:2014 OIL-IMMERSED CABLE CONNECTION ASSEMBLIES FOR TRANSFORMERS AND REACTORS HAVING HIGHEST VOLTAGE FOR EQUIPMENT UM FROM 72,5 KV TO 550 KV - PART 2: DRY-TYPE CABLE TERMINATIONS
    I.S. EN 60137:2017 INSULATED BUSHINGS FOR ALTERNATING VOLTAGES ABOVE 1000 V
    I.S. EN 60358-1:2012 COUPLING CAPACITORS AND CAPACITOR DIVIDERS - PART 1: GENERAL RULES (IEC 60358-1:2012 (EQV))
    DD IEC PAS 60044-5 : DRAFT SEP 2002 INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS - PART 5: CAPACITOR VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS
    I.S. EN 60296:2012 FLUIDS FOR ELECTROTECHNICAL APPLICATIONS - UNUSED MINERAL INSULATING OILS FOR TRANSFORMERS AND SWITCHGEAR (IEC 60296:2012 (EQV))
    I.S. EN 60076-14:2013 POWER TRANSFORMERS - PART 14: LIQUIDIMMERSED POWER TRANSFORMERS USING HIGH-TEMPERATURE INSULATION MATERIALS (IEC 60076-14:2013 (EQV))
    I.S. EN 62770:2014 FLUIDS FOR ELECTROTECHNICAL APPLICATIONS - UNUSED NATURAL ESTERS FOR TRANSFORMERS AND SIMILAR ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
    I.S. EN IEC 61125:2018 INSULATING LIQUIDS - TEST METHODS FOR OXIDATION STABILITY - TEST METHOD FOR EVALUATING THE OXIDATION STABILITY OF INSULATING LIQUIDS IN THE DELIVERED STATE
    IEC TR 62697-2:2018 Test methods for quantitative determination of corrosive sulfur compounds in unused and used insulating liquids - Part 2: Test method for quantitative determination of total corrosive sulfur (TCS)
    I.S. EN 61869-5:2011 INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS - PART 5: ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR CAPACITOR VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS (IEC 61869-5:2011)
    I.S. EN 62697-1:2012 TEST METHODS FOR QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF CORROSIVE SULFUR COMPOUNDS IN UNUSED AND USED INSULATING LIQUIDS - PART 1: TEST METHOD FOR QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF DIBENZYLDISULFIDE (DBDS) (IEC 62697-1:2012 (EQV))
    UNE-EN 50299-2:2015 Oil-immersed cable connection assemblies for transformers and reactors having highest voltage for equipment Um from 72,5 kV to 550 kV - Part 2: Dry-type cable terminations
    EN 60137:2017 INSULATED BUSHINGS FOR ALTERNATING VOLTAGES ABOVE 1000 V (IEC 60137:2017)
    I.S. EN 60666:2010 DETECTION AND DETERMINATION OF SPECIFIED ADDITIVES IN MINERAL INSULATING OILS
    IEC 60137 REDLINE : 7ED 2017 INSULATED BUSHINGS FOR ALTERNATING VOLTAGES ABOVE 1000 V
    09/30213528 DC : 0 BS EN 60296 - FLUIDS FOR ELECTROTECHNICAL APPLICATIONS - UNUSED MINERAL INSULATING OIL FOR TRANSFORMERS AND SWITCHGEAR
    ISO 18095:2018 Condition monitoring and diagnostics of power transformers
    CEI 14-42 : 2011 CONVERTER TRANSFORMERS - PART 3: APPLICATION GUIDE
    UNE-EN 61869-5:2012 Instrument transformers - Part 5: Additional requirements for capacitor voltage transformers
    CEI EN 62770 : 2014 FLUIDS FOR ELECTROTECHNICAL APPLICATIONS - UNUSED NATURAL ESTERS FOR TRANSFORMERS AND SIMILAR ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
    IEC 60296 REDLINE : 4.0 FLUIDS FOR ELECTROTECHNICAL APPLICATIONS - UNUSED MINERAL INSULATING OILS FOR TRANSFORMERS AND SWITCHGEAR
    IEC PAS 60044-5:2002 Instrument transformers - Part 5: Capacitor voltage transformers
    IEC 61378-3:2015 Converter transformers - Part 3: Application guide
    I.S. EN 60970:2007/AC:2008 INSULATING LIQUIDS - METHODS FOR COUNTING AND SIZING PARTICLES
    IEC 61125:2018 Insulating liquids - Test methods for oxidation stability - Test method for evaluating the oxidation stability of insulating liquids in the delivered state
    IEC TS 62332-1:2011 Electrical insulation systems (EIS) - Thermal evaluation of combined liquid and solid components - Part 1: General requirements
    IEC TS 60076-14:2009 Power transformers - Part 14: Design and application of liquid-immersed power transformers using high-temperature insulation materials
    EN 60358-1 : 2012 COUPLING CAPACITORS AND CAPACITOR DIVIDERS - PART 1: GENERAL RULES (IEC 60358-1:2012)
    CEI EN 60296 : 2013 FLUIDS FOR ELECTROTECHNICAL APPLICATIONS - UNUSED MINERAL INSULATING OILS FOR TRANSFORMERS AND SWITCHGEAR
    IEC 60970:2007 Insulating liquids - Methods for counting and sizing particles
    IEC 62770:2013 Fluids for electrotechnical applications - Unused natural esters for transformers and similar electrical equipment
    IEC 60296:2012 RLV Fluids for electrotechnical applications - Unused mineral insulating oils for transformers and switchgear
    IEC 60666:2010 Detection and determination of specified additives in mineral insulating oils
    IEC 61869-5:2011 Instrument transformers - Part 5: Additional requirements for capacitor voltage transformers
    IEC 60358-1:2012 Coupling capacitors and capacitor dividers - Part 1: General rules
    IEC 62697-1:2012 Test methods for quantitative determination of corrosive sulfur compounds in unused and used insulating liquids - Part 1: Test method for quantitative determination of dibenzyldisulfide (DBDS)
    UNE-EN 60296:2012 Fluids for electrotechnical applications - Unused mineral insulating oils for transformers and switchgear
    IEC 60076-14:2013 Power transformers - Part 14: Liquid-immersed power transformers using high-temperature insulation materials
    UNE-EN 62697-1:2013 Test methods for quantitative determination of corrosive sulfur compounds in unused and used insulating liquids - Part 1: Test method for quantitative determination of dibenzyldisulfide (DBDS)
    IEC 60044-5:2004 Instrument transformers - Part 5: Capacitor voltage transformers
    EN 60296:2012 FLUIDS FOR ELECTROTECHNICAL APPLICATIONS - UNUSED MINERAL INSULATING OILS FOR TRANSFORMERS AND SWITCHGEAR (IEC 60296:2012)
    IEC 60137:2017 RLV Insulated bushings for alternating voltages above 1000 V
    EN 62697-1 : 2012 TEST METHODS FOR QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF CORROSIVE SULFUR COMPOUNDS IN UNUSED AND USED INSULATING LIQUIDS - PART 1: TEST METHOD FOR QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF DIBENZYLDISULFIDE (DBDS) (IEC 62697-1:2012)
    EN 62701 : 2014 FLUIDS FOR ELECTROTECHNICAL APPLICATIONS - RECYCLED MINERAL INSULATING OILS FOR TRANSFORMERS AND SWITCHGEARS (IEC 62701:2014)
    EN 60044-5 : 2004 INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS - PART 5: CAPACITOR VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS
    EN 62770 : 2014 FLUIDS FOR ELECTROTECHNICAL APPLICATIONS - UNUSED NATURAL ESTERS FOR TRANSFORMERS AND SIMILAR ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT (IEC 62770:2013)
    EN 50299-2 : 2014 OIL-IMMERSED CABLE CONNECTION ASSEMBLIES FOR TRANSFORMERS AND REACTORS HAVING HIGHEST VOLTAGE FOR EQUIPMENT UM FROM 72,5 KV TO 550 KV - PART 2: DRY-TYPE CABLE TERMINATIONS
    EN 61869-5 : 2011 INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS - PART 5: ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR CAPACITOR VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS (IEC 61869-5:2011)
    EN 60666 : 2010 DETECTION AND DETERMINATION OF SPECIFIED ADDITIVES IN MINERAL INSULATING OILS
    EN 60076-14 : 2013 POWER TRANSFORMERS - PART 14: LIQUID-IMMERSED POWER TRANSFORMERS USING HIGH-TEMPERATURE INSULATION MATERIALS
    EN 60970:2007/corrigendum:2008 INSULATING LIQUIDS - METHODS FOR COUNTING AND SIZING PARTICLES

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    ISO 4793:1980 Laboratory sintered (fritted) filters Porosity grading, classification and designation
    ISO 3016:1994 Petroleum products Determination of pour point
    ISO 2719:2016 Determination of flash point Pensky-Martens closed cup method
    IEC 62021-1:2003 Insulating liquids - Determination of acidity - Part 1: Automatic potentiometric titration
    IEC 62021-2:2007 Insulating liquids - Determination of acidity - Part 2: Colourimetric titration
    IEC 61125:1992 Unused hydrocarbon based insulating liquids - Test methods for evaluating the oxidation stability
    ISO 3675:1998 Crude petroleum and liquid petroleum products Laboratory determination of density Hydrometer method
    IEC 60156:1995 Insulating liquids - Determination of the breakdown voltage at power frequency - Test method
    BS 6522(1984) : 1984 METHODS FOR DETERMINATION OF PERCENTAGE WATER SATURATION OF INSULATING OIL
    IEC 60599:2015 Mineral oil-filled electrical equipment in service - Guidance on the interpretation of dissolved and free gases analysis
    EN 14210 : 2003 SURFACE ACTIVE AGENTS - DETERMINATION OF INTERFACIAL TENSION OF SOLUTIONS OF SURFACE ACTIVE AGENTS BY THE STIRRUP OR RING METHOD
    ISO 6247:1998 Petroleum products — Determination of foaming characteristics of lubricating oils
    IEC 62535:2008 Insulating liquids - Test method for detection of potentially corrosive sulphur in used and unused insulating oil
    IEC 60475:2011 Method of sampling insulating liquids
    IEC 60567:2011 Oil-filled electrical equipment - Sampling of gases and analysis of free and dissolved gases - Guidance
    ASTM D 1275 : 2015 Standard Test Method for Corrosive Sulfur in Electrical Insulating Liquids
    IEC 60296:2012 RLV Fluids for electrotechnical applications - Unused mineral insulating oils for transformers and switchgear
    ISO 12185:1996 Crude petroleum and petroleum products Determination of density Oscillating U-tube method
    AS 61869.5:2021 Instrument transformers Additional requirements for capacitor voltage transformers (IEC 61869-5:2011 (ED 1.0) MOD)
    IEC 60970:2007 Insulating liquids - Methods for counting and sizing particles
    IEC 62697-1:2012 Test methods for quantitative determination of corrosive sulfur compounds in unused and used insulating liquids - Part 1: Test method for quantitative determination of dibenzyldisulfide (DBDS)
    IEC 60666:2010 Detection and determination of specified additives in mineral insulating oils
    IEC 60814:1997 Insulating liquids - Oil-impregnated paper and pressboard - Determination of water by automatic coulometric Karl Fischer titration
    IEC 60247:2004 Insulating liquids - Measurement of relative permittivity, dielectric dissipation factor (tan d) and d.c. resistivity
    ISO 2049:1996 Petroleum products Determination of colour (ASTM scale)
    IEC 61619:1997 Insulating liquids - Contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) - Method of determination by capillary column gas chromatography
    IEC 61198:1993 Mineral insulating oils - Methods for the determination of 2-furfural and related compounds
    IEEE C57.106 : 2006 ACCEPTANCE AND MAINTENANCE OF INSULATING MINERAL OIL IN ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
    ISO 4407:2002 Hydraulic fluid power Fluid contamination Determination of particulate contamination by the counting method using an optical microscope
    ISO Guide 73:2009 Risk management — Vocabulary
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