• IEC TR 60943:1998+AMD1:2008 CSV

    Current The latest, up-to-date edition.

    Guidance concerning the permissible temperature rise for parts of electrical equipment, in particular for terminals

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF, PDF 3 Users, PDF 5 Users, PDF 9 Users

    Language(s):  English - French

    Published date:  24-03-2009

    Publisher:  International Electrotechnical Committee

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    Table of Contents - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    FOREWORD
    INTRODUCTION
    Section 1: General
    1 General
      1.1 Scope and object
      1.2 Reference documents
      1.3 Definitions
      1.4 Symbols
    Section 2: Theory
    2 General considerations concerning the nature of
      electric contact and the calculation and
      measurement of the ohmic resistance of contacts
      2.1 Electric contacts and connection terminals
      2.2 Nature of electric contact
      2.3 Calculation of contact resistance
    3 Ageing mechanisms of contacts and connection terminals
      3.1 General
      3.2 Contacts of dissimilar metals
      3.3 Oxidation ageing mechanisms
      3.4 Results concerning ageing of copper contacts
      3.5 Usage and precautions to be taken in the use of
          contact materials
    4 Calculation of temperature rise of conductors, contacts
      and connection terminals
      4.1 Symbolic representations
      4.2 Temperature rise deltaT[s] of a conductor with respect
          to the temperature T[e] of the surrounding medium
      4.3 Temperature rise deltaT[o] o in the vicinity of the
          contact: temperature rise of connection terminals
      4.4 Temperature rise of the elementary contact points
    Section 3: Application
    5 Permissible temperature and temperature rise values
      5.1 Ambient air temperature theta[a]
      5.2 Temperature and temperature rise of various
          equipment components
      5.3 Temperature and temperature rise of conductors
          connecting electrical equipment
      5.4 Temperature and temperature rise of connection
          terminals for electrical equipment - Influence
          on connected conductors
    6 General procedure to be followed for determining
      permissible temperature and temperature rise
      6.1 Basic parameters
      6.2 Method to be followed for determining maximum
          permissible temperature and temperature rise
    Annex A - Numerical examples of the application of the
              theory and other data
    Annex B - Physical characteristics of selected metals
              and alloys
    Annex C - Physical characteristics of fluid dielectrics
    Annex D - Information on the reaction of contact metals
              with substances in the atmosphere
    Annex E - Temperature rise of a conductor cooled by
              radiation and convection in the vicinity
              of a terminal
    Annex F - List of symbols used in this report
    Annex G - Bibliography

    Abstract - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    IEC/TR 60943:1998+A1:2009 is intended for guidance in estimating the permissible values for temperature and temperature rise of component parts of electrical equipment carrying current under steady state conditions. The present report is intended to supply:
    - general data on the structure of electric contacts and the calculation of their ohmic resistance;
    - the basic ageing mechanisms of contacts;
    - the calculation of the temperature rise of contacts and connection terminals;
    - the maximum "permissible" temperature and temperature rise for various components, in particular the contacts, the connection terminals and the conductors connected to them;
    - the general procedure to be followed by product committees for specifying the permissible temperature and temperature rise.

    This consolidated version consists of the second edition (1998) and its amendment 1 (2009). Therefore, no need to order amendment in addition to this publication.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee TC 32
    Development Note Stability Date: 2018. (10/2012)
    Document Type Technical Report
    Publisher International Electrotechnical Committee
    Status Current
    Supersedes

    Standards Referenced By This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    IEC GUIDE 111:2004 Electrical high-voltage equipment in high-voltage substations - Common recommendations for product standards
    CEI EN 60077-3 : 2002 RAILWAY APPLICATIONS - ELECTRIC EQUIPMENT FOR ROLLING STOCK - PART 3: ELECTROTECHNICAL COMPONENTS - RULES FOR D/C/ CIRCUIT-BREAKERS
    BS EN 61709:2017 (published 2017-08) Electric components. Reliability. Reference conditions for failure rates and stress models for conversion
    UNE-EN 62271-204:2012 High-voltage switchgear and controlgear - Part 204: Rigid gas-insulated transmission lines for rated voltage above 52 kV
    I.S. EN 62790:2015 JUNCTION BOXES FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES - SAFETY REQUIREMENTS AND TESTS
    BS IEC 60076-15 : 2015 POWER TRANSFORMERS - PART 15: GAS-FILLED POWER TRANSFORMERS
    BS EN 62790 : 2015 JUNCTION BOXES FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES - SAFETY REQUIREMENTS AND TESTS
    09/30214460 DC : 0 BS EN 50548 - JUNCTION BOXES FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES
    IEEE C37.60:2012 HIGH-VOLTAGE SWITCHGEAR AND CONTROLGEAR - PART 111: AUTOMATIC CIRCUIT RECLOSERS AND FAULT INTERRUPTERS FOR ALTERNATING CURRENT SYSTEMS UP TO 38 KV
    BS EN 60079-7 : 2015 EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERES - PART 7: EQUIPMENT PROTECTION BY INCREASED SAFETY 'E' (IEC 60079-7:2015)
    UNE-EN 60137:2011 Insulated bushings for alternating voltages above 1 000 V
    EN 60077-2:2017 RAILWAY APPLICATIONS - ELECTRIC EQUIPMENT FOR ROLLING STOCK - PART 2: ELECTROTECHNICAL COMPONENTS - GENERAL RULES (IEC 60077-2:2017)
    04/30111859 DC : 0 IEC 62271-1 - HIGH-VOLTAGE SWITCHGEAR AND CONTROL GEAR - PART 1: COMMON SPECIFICATIONS
    15/30265353 DC : 0 BS EN 62271-1 ED 2 - HIGH-VOLTAGE SWITCHGEAR AND CONTROLGEAR - PART 1: COMMON SPECIFICATIONS FOR ALTERNATING CURRENT SWITCHGEAR AND CONTROLGEAR
    14/30278882 DC : 0 BS EN 60079-7 IEC 60079-7 ED. 5.0 - EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERES - PART 7: EQUIPMENT PROTECTION BY INCREASED SAFETY 'E'
    CEI 32-12 : 2014 LOW-VOLTAGE FUSES - PART 2: SUPPLEMENTARY REQUIREMENTS FOR FUSES FOR USE BY AUTHORIZED PERSONS (FUSES MAINLY FOR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION) - EXAMPLES OF STANDARDIZED SYSTEMS OF FUSES A TO K
    07/30167396 DC : 0 BS EN 61869-4 - INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS - PART 4 - SPECIFIC REQUIREMENT FOR COMBINED TRANSFORMERS
    NF EN 50521 : 2009 AMD 1 2012 CONNECTORS FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS - SAFETY REQUIREMENTS AND TESTS
    07/30167174 DC : 0 BS EN 61869-2 - INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS - PART 2: SPECIFIC REQUIREMENT FOR CURRENT TRANSFORMERS
    BS 88-2(2013) : 2013 COR 2014 LOW-VOLTAGE FUSES - PART 2: SUPPLEMENTARY REQUIREMENTS FOR FUSES FOR USE BY AUTHORIZED PERSONS (FUSES MAINLY FOR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION) - EXAMPLES OF STANDARDIZED SYSTEMS OF FUSES A TO K
    BS HD 60269-2 : 2013 LOW-VOLTAGE FUSES - PART 2: SUPPLEMENTARY REQUIREMENTS FOR FUSES FOR USE BY AUTHORIZED PERSONS (FUSES MAINLY FOR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION) - EXAMPLES OF STANDARDIZED SYSTEMS OF FUSES A TO K
    BS PD CLC/TR 50479 : 2007 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION GUIDE - SELECTION AND ERECTION OF ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT - WIRING SYSTEMS - LIMITATION OF TEMPERATURE RISE OF CONNECTING INTERFACES
    CEI EN 60077-2 : 2002 RAILWAY APPLICATIONS - ELECTRIC EQUIPMENT FOR ROLLING STOCK - PART 2: ELECTROTECHNICAL COMPONENTS - GENERAL RULES
    BS IEC 62790 : 2014 JUNCTION BOXES FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES - SAFETY REQUIREMENTS AND TESTS
    BS EN 60077-2:2017 Railway applications. Electric equipment for rolling stock Electrotechnical components. General rules
    13/30281408 DC : 0 BS EN 61869-10 - INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS - PART 10: ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR LOW-POWER, STAND-ALONE CURRENT SENSORS
    CEI EN 62271-204 : 2012 HIGH-VOLTAGE SWITCHGEAR AND CONTROLGEAR - PART 204: RIGID GAS-INSULATED TRANSMISSION LINES FOR RATED VOLTAGES ABOVE 52 KV
    12/30275045 DC : 0 BS EN 60076-15 - POWER TRANSFORMERS - PART 15: GAS-FILLED POWER TRANSFORMER
    BS EN 62271-204:2011 High-voltage switchgear and controlgear Rigid gas-insulated transmission lines for rated voltage above 52 kV
    CLC/TR 50479 : 2007 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION GUIDE - SELECTION AND ERECTION OF ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT - WIRING SYSTEMS - LIMITATION OF TEMPERATURE RISE OF CONNECTING INTERFACES
    16/30318517 DC : 0 BS EN 60137 ED. 7.0 - INSULATED BUSHINGS FOR ALTERNATING VOLTAGES ABOVE 1000 V
    05/30133866 DC : DRAFT MAY 2005 IEC 60076-6 - POWER TRANSFORMERS - PART 6: REACTORS
    04/30111589 DC : 0
    BS EN 60076-6 : 2008 POWER TRANSFORMERS - PART 6: REACTORS
    IEEE C57.16 : 2011 REQUIREMENTS, TERMINOLOGY, AND TEST CODE FOR DRY-TYPE AIR-CORE SERIES-CONNECTED REACTORS
    BS EN 60077-3 : 2002 RAILWAY APPLICATIONS - ELECTRIC EQUIPMENT FOR ROLLING STOCK - PART 3: ELECTROTECHNICAL COMPONENTS - RULES FOR D.C. CIRCUIT-BREAKERS
    I.S. EN 62271-204:2011 HIGH-VOLTAGE SWITCHGEAR AND CONTROLGEAR - PART 204: RIGID GAS-INSULATED TRANSMISSION LINES FOR RATED VOLTAGE ABOVE 52 KV (IEC 62271-204:2011 (EQV))
    NBR 5356-6 : 2012 ERRATA 1 2014 POWER TRANSFORMERS - PART 6: REACTORS
    C22.2 NO. 31-18 Switchgear assemblies
    16/30296085 DC : 0 BS EN 60077-2 ED. 2.0 - RAILWAY APPLICATIONS - ELECTRIC EQUIPMENT FOR ROLLING STOCK - PART 2: ELECTROTECHNICAL COMPONENTS - GENERAL RULES
    IEC 61709:2017 RLV Electric components - Reliability - Reference conditions for failure rates and stress models for conversion
    IEC TR 62271-306:2012 High-voltage switchgear and controlgear - Part 306: Guide to IEC 62271-100, IEC 62271-1 and other IEC standards related to alternating current circuit-breakers
    IEC TR 61200-52:2013 Electrical installation guide - Part 52: Selection and erection of electrical equipment - Wiring systems
    IEEE C37.100.1 : 2007 COMMON REQUIREMENTS FOR HIGH VOLTAGE POWER SWITCHGEAR RATED ABOVE 1000 V
    I.S. EN 60079-7:2015 EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERES - PART 7: EQUIPMENT PROTECTION BY INCREASED SAFETY 'E'
    IEC 60322:2001 Railway applications - Electric equipment for rolling stock - Rules for power resistors of open construction
    I.S. EN 50521:2008 CONNECTORS FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS - SAFETY REQUIREMENTS AND TESTS
    I.S. EN 62271-1:2017 HIGH-VOLTAGE SWITCHGEAR AND CONTROLGEAR - PART 1: COMMON SPECIFICATIONS FOR ALTERNATING CURRENT SWITCHGEAR AND CONTROLGEAR
    BS EN 60137 : 2017 INSULATED BUSHINGS FOR ALTERNATING VOLTAGES ABOVE 1000 V
    I.S. EN 60694:1999 COMMON SPECIFICATIONS FOR HIGH-VOLTAGE SWITCHGEAR AND CONTROLGEAR STANDARDS
    I.S. HD 60269-2:2013 LOW-VOLTAGE FUSES - PART 2: SUPPLEMENTARY REQUIREMENTS FOR FUSES FOR USE BY AUTHORIZED PERSONS (FUSES MAINLY FOR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION) - EXAMPLES OF STANDARDIZED SYSTEMS OF FUSES A TO K (IEC 60269-2:2013 (MOD))
    I.S. EN 61709:2017 ELECTRIC COMPONENTS - RELIABILITY - REFERENCE CONDITIONS FOR FAILURE RATES AND STRESS MODELS FOR CONVERSION
    BS EN 62271-1:2017 High-voltage switchgear and controlgear Common specifications for alternating current switchgear and controlgear
    S.R. CLC/TR 50479:2007 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION GUIDE - SELECTION AND ERECTION OF ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT - WIRING SYSTEMS - LIMITATION OF TEMPERATURE RISE OF CONNECTING INTERFACES
    I.S. EN 62852:2015 CONNECTORS FOR DC-APPLICATION IN PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS - SAFETY REQUIREMENTS AND TESTS
    EN 62271-1:2017 HIGH-VOLTAGE SWITCHGEAR AND CONTROLGEAR - PART 1: COMMON SPECIFICATIONS FOR ALTERNATING CURRENT SWITCHGEAR AND CONTROLGEAR (IEC 62271-1:2017)
    I.S. EN 60137:2017 INSULATED BUSHINGS FOR ALTERNATING VOLTAGES ABOVE 1000 V
    BS EN 50548 : 2011 JUNCTION BOXES FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES
    UNE-EN 50548:2012 Junction boxes for photovoltaic modules
    CSA C22.2 No. 60079-7 : 2016 EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERES - PART 7: EQUIPMENT PROTECTION BY INCREASED SAFETY 'E'
    I.S. EN 50548:2011 JUNCTION BOXES FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES
    CEI EN 60137 : 2009 INSULATED BUSHINGS FOR ALTERNATING VOLTAGES ABOVE 1000 V
    BIS IS/IEC 62271-1 : 2007 HIGH-VOLTAGE SWITCHGEAR AND CONTROLGEAR - PART 1: COMMON SPECIFICATIONS
    NF EN 50548 : 2011 AMD 2 2014 JUNCTION BOXES FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES
    UNE-EN 62790:2015 Junction boxes for photovoltaic modules - Safety requirements and tests
    NF EN 60076-6 : 2008 POWER TRANSFORMERS - PART 6: REACTORS
    CSA C61869-1 : 2014 INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS - PART 1: GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
    IEC 60269-2:2013+AMD1:2016 CSV Low-voltage fuses - Part 2: Supplementary requirements for fuses for use by authorized persons (fuses mainly for industrial application) - Examples of standardized systems of fuses A to K
    PREN 50548 : DRAFT 2009 JUNCTION BOXES FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES
    CEI EN 60076-6 : 2015 POWER TRANSFORMERS - PART 6: REACTORS
    EN 60137:2017 INSULATED BUSHINGS FOR ALTERNATING VOLTAGES ABOVE 1000 V (IEC 60137:2017)
    UNE-EN 62852:2015 Connectors for DC-application in photovoltaic systems - Safety requirements and tests
    I.S. EN 60076-6:2008 POWER TRANSFORMERS - PART 6: REACTORS
    EN 61709:2017 ELECTRIC COMPONENTS - RELIABILITY - REFERENCE CONDITIONS FOR FAILURE RATES AND STRESS MODELS FOR CONVERSION (IEC 61709:2017)
    IEC 60077-1:2017 Railway applications - Electric equipment for rolling stock - Part 1: General service conditions and general rules
    I.S. EN 60077-2:2017 RAILWAY APPLICATIONS - ELECTRIC EQUIPMENT FOR ROLLING STOCK - PART 2: ELECTROTECHNICAL COMPONENTS - GENERAL RULES
    IEC 61869-1:2007 Instrument transformers - Part 1: General requirements
    IEC 60137 REDLINE : 7ED 2017 INSULATED BUSHINGS FOR ALTERNATING VOLTAGES ABOVE 1000 V
    IEC 60076-15:2015 Power transformers - Part 15: Gas-filled power transformers
    I.S. EN 60077-3:2002 RAILWAY APPLICATIONS - ELECTRIC EQUIPMENT FOR ROLLING STOCK - PART 3: ELECTROTECHNICAL COMPONENTS - RULES FOR D.C. CIRCUIT-BREAKERS
    IEC 60077-2 REDLINE : 2ED 2017 RAILWAY APPLICATIONS - ELECTRIC EQUIPMENT FOR ROLLING STOCK - PART 2: ELECTROTECHNICAL COMPONENTS - GENERAL RULES
    IEC 61709 : 3.0 ELECTRIC COMPONENTS - RELIABILITY - REFERENCE CONDITIONS FOR FAILURE RATES AND STRESS MODELS FOR CONVERSION
    IEC 60077-3:2001 Railway applications - Electric equipment for rolling stock - Part 3: Electrotechnical components - Rules for d.c. circuit-breakers
    IEC 60077-2:2017 Railway applications - Electric equipment for rolling stock - Part 2: Electrotechnical components - General rules
    IEC 62271-1:2017 High-voltage switchgear and controlgear - Part 1: Common specifications for alternating current switchgear and controlgear
    IEC 62271-111:2012 High-voltage switchgear and controlgear - Part 111: Automatic circuit reclosers and fault interrupters for alternating current systems up to 38 kV
    I.S. EN 60077-1:2017 RAILWAY APPLICATIONS - ELECTRIC EQUIPMENT FOR ROLLING STOCK - PART 1: GENERAL SERVICE CONDITIONS AND GENERAL RULES
    IEC 60077-1 REDLINE : 2ED 2017 RAILWAY APPLICATIONS - ELECTRIC EQUIPMENT FOR ROLLING STOCK - PART 1: GENERAL SERVICE CONDITIONS AND GENERAL RULES
    IEC 60079-7:2015+AMD1:2017 CSV Explosive atmospheres - Part 7: Equipment protection by increased safety "e"
    EN IEC 60079-7:2015/A1:2018 EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERES - PART 7: EQUIPMENT PROTECTION BY INCREASED SAFETY 'E' (IEC 60079-7:2015/A1:2017)
    BS IEC 62852 : 2014 CONNECTORS FOR DC-APPLICATION IN PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS - SAFETY REQUIREMENTS AND TESTS
    IEC 62852:2014 Connectors for DC-application in photovoltaic systems - Safety requirements and tests
    IEC 62271-204:2011 High-voltage switchgear and controlgear - Part 204: Rigid gas-insulated transmission lines for rated voltage above 52 kV
    EN 62852:2015 CONNECTORS FOR DC-APPLICATION IN PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS - SAFETY REQUIREMENTS AND TESTS (IEC 62852:2014)
    IEC 60076-6:2007 Power transformers - Part 6: Reactors
    BS EN 60322 : 2001 RAILWAY APPLICATIONS - ELECTRIC EQUIPMENT FOR ROLLING STOCK - RULES FOR POWER RESISTORS OF OPEN CONSTRUCTION
    BS EN 62852:2015 Connectors for DC-application in photovoltaic systems. Safety requirements and tests
    IEC TR 62271-307:2015 High-voltage switchgear and controlgear - Part 307: Guidance for the extension of validity of type tests of AC metal and solid-insulation enclosed switchgear and controlgear for rated voltages above 1 kV and up to and including 52 kV
    BS EN 50521 : 2009 CONNECTORS FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS - SAFETY REQUIREMENTS AND TESTS
    08/30179116 DC : DRAFT MAR 2008 BS EN 50521 - CONNECTORS FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS - SAFETY REQUIREMENTS AND TESTS
    BS EN 60077-1:2017 Railway applications. Electric equipment for rolling stock General service conditions and general rules
    UNE-EN 61869-1:2010 Instrument transformers -- Part 1: General requirements
    UNE-EN 50521:2010 Connectors for photovoltaic systems - Safety requirements and tests
    EN 62790 : 2015 JUNCTION BOXES FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES - SAFETY REQUIREMENTS AND TESTS (IEC 62790:2014)
    IEC 60137:2017 RLV Insulated bushings for alternating voltages above 1000 V
    EN 60694:1996/A2:2001 COMMON SPECIFICATIONS FOR HIGH-VOLTAGE SWITCHGEAR AND CONTROLGEAR STANDARDS
    EN 60322 : 2001 RAILWAY APPLICATIONS - ELECTRIC EQUIPMENT FOR ROLLING STOCK - RULES FOR POWER RESISTORS OF OPEN CONSTRUCTION
    EN 60077-3 : 2002 RAILWAY APPLICATIONS - ELECTRIC EQUIPMENT FOR ROLLING STOCK - PART 3: ELECTROTECHNICAL COMPONENTS - RULES FOR D.C. CIRCUIT-BREAKERS
    NF EN 60077-3 : 2002 RAILWAY APPLICATIONS - ELECTRIC EQUIPMENT FOR ROLLING STOCK - PART 3: RULES FOR DC CIRCUIT-BREAKERS
    EN 50548 : 2011 AMD 2 2014 JUNCTION BOXES FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES
    EN 60077-1:2017 RAILWAY APPLICATIONS - ELECTRIC EQUIPMENT FOR ROLLING STOCK - PART 1: GENERAL SERVICE CONDITIONS AND GENERAL RULES (IEC 60077-1:2017)
    EN 50521:2008/A1:2012 CONNECTORS FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS - SAFETY REQUIREMENTS AND TESTS
    EN 60076-6 : 2008 POWER TRANSFORMERS - PART 6: REACTORS
    IEC 60077-2:2017 RLV Railway applications - Electric equipment for rolling stock - Part 2: Electrotechnical components - General rules
    IEC 60077-1:2017 RLV Railway applications - Electric equipment for rolling stock - Part 1: General service conditions and general rules
    HD 60269-2:2013 Low-voltage fuses - Part 2: Supplementary requirements for fuses for use by authorized persons (fuses mainly for industrial application) - Examples of standardized systems of fuses A to K
    IEC 61709:2017 Electric components - Reliability - Reference conditions for failure rates and stress models for conversion
    EN 62271-204:2011 High-voltage switchgear and controlgear - Part 204: Rigid gas-insulated transmission lines for rated voltage above 52 kV

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    IEC 60050-441:1984 International Electrotechnical Vocabulary (IEV) - Part 441: Switchgear, controlgear and fuses
    IEC 60694:1996+AMD1:2000+AMD2:2001 CSV Common specifications for high-voltage switchgear and controlgear standards
    IEC 60085:2007 Electrical insulation - Thermal evaluation and designation
    IEC 60721-2-1:2013 Classification of environmental conditions - Part 2-1: Environmental conditions appearing in nature - Temperature and humidity
    IEC 60947-1:2007+AMD1:2010+AMD2:2014 CSV Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear - Part 1: General rules
    IEC 60364-4-42:2010+AMD1:2014 CSV Low-voltage electrical installations - Part 4-42: Protection forsafety - Protection against thermal effects
    IEC 60216-1:2013 Electrical insulating materials - Thermal endurance properties - Part 1: Ageing procedures and evaluation of test results
    IEC TR 60890:2014 A method of temperature-rise verification of low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies by calculation
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