• IEEE C62.41-1991

    Current The latest, up-to-date edition.

    RECOMMENDED PRACTICE ON SURGE VOLTAGES IN LOW-VOLTAGE AC POWER CIRCUITS

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF

    Language(s):  English

    Published date:  11-10-1991

    Publisher:  Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers

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    Table of Contents - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Section
    1 Scope
    2 How to use this document
    2.1 General
    2.2 Achieving practical surge immunity
    2.2.1 Protection desired
    2.2.2 Equipment sensitivities
    2.2.3 Power environment - surges
    2.2.4 Power environment - electrical system
    2.2.5 Performance of surge-protective devices
    2.2.6 Test environment
    2.2.7 Costs
    2.3 Document outline
    3 Definitions
    4 References
    5 The origins of surge voltages
    5.1 General
    5.2 Lightning
    5.3 Switching transients
    6 Summary of data base
    6.1 General
    6.2 Notations and definitions
    6.3 Site surveys of power quality
    6.4 Field experience
    6.5 Summary of surge characteristics
    6.5.1 Peak amplitude versus rate of occurrence
    6.5.2 Duration
    6.5.3 Ringing frequency
    6.5.4 Voltage rate of change
    6.5.5 Energy delivery capability
    6.5.6 Effects of location, loads, and mode of coupling
    7 Recommended selection of representative surges
    7.1 General
    7.2 Simplification of the data base
    7.3 Rate of occurrence and voltage levels in
            unprotected circuits
    7.3.1 General
    7.3.2 Rate of occurrence versus voltage level
    7.3.3 Exposure levels
    7.4 Recommended waveforms
    7.4.1 General
    7.4.2 Ring wave
    7.4.3 High-energy surges
    7.4.4 Fast transients
    7.5 Amplitude, energy, and source impedance
    7.6 Rate of voltage change
    7.7 Location categories
    8 Recommended planning for surge immunity
    8.1 General
    8.2 Reconciling equipment susceptibility and
            environment hostility
    8.3 Worst-case design and economic trade-off
    8.4 Surge effects
    8.5 Selection of waveforms
    9 Definition of standard sure-testing waveforms
    9.1 General
    9.1.1 100 kHz ring wave
    9.1.2 Combination wave
    9.2 Selection of peak values of standard waveforms
    9.3 Test conditions
    9.3.1 Powered testing
    9.3.2 Verification of the test generator
    9.3.3 Tolerances on most important parameter
    9.3.4 Unpowered testing
    9.4 Detailed specifications of waveforms
    9.4.1 0.5 microsecond-100 kHz ring wave
    9.4.2 1.2/50 - 8/20 microsecond combination wave
    9.5 Equations for standard waveforms
    10 Definition of additional surge-testing waveforms
    10.1 The electrical fast transient (EFT)
    10.1.1 Waveform definition
    10.1.2 Amplitude
    10.1.3 Test procedures
    10.2 The 10/1000 microsecond wave
    10.2.1 Waveform definition
    10.2.2 Amplitude
    10.2.3 Test procedure
    10.3 The 5 kHz ring wave
    10.3.1 Waveform definition
    10.3.2 Amplitude
    10.3.3 Test procedures
    10.4 Equations for additional waveforms
    Appendixes
    A - Data base
    A1 Initial 1980 data base
    A2 Additional data
    A3 Review of published data
    A4 Relative occurrence of different types of
         disturbances
    A5 Differences in amplitude
    A6 Differences in waveforms
    B - Additional information
    B1 Amplitudes of strikes
    B2 Amplitude spectral density
    B3 Changes in the environment
    B4 Description versus specification
    B5 Differential mode and common mode
    B6 EFT test
    B7 Energy delivery capability
    B8 Expected occurrence of lightning
    B9 Failure rate observations
    B10 Installation categories
    B11 Interface devices
    B12 Level versus rate of occurrence
    B13 Low-voltage system oscillatory surges during
         lightning
    B14 Multiple strokes and total energy
    B15 Open-circuit voltages and wiring sparkover
    B16 Per-unit
    B17 Power system source impedance
    B18 Sparkover of clearances
    B19 Surge impedance and source impedance
    B20 Surge voltage
    B21 Switching surges
    B22 Timing of surges with respect to power frequency
    B23 Utilities interconnections and interactions
    B24 VDE 0160 [B94] high-energy test
    B25 Worst case
    C - Annotated bibliography
    C1 Bibliographic information about references
    C2 Recorded occurrences and computed simulations
    C3 Propagation, attenuation, and mitigation
    C4 Reviews and discussions
    C5 Measurement techniques and test methods
    C6 Related standards
    Figures
    Fig 1 Simplified relationships between voltage,
            duration, rate of change, and their effects on
            equipment
    Fig 2 Relative number of transients as a function of
            amplitude
    Fig 3 Comparison of the slopes of the frequency of
            occurrence versus peaks of the surges among six
            site surveys
    Fig 4 Amplitude spectral density at four sites
    Fig 5 Statistical evaluation of recorded dv/dt data,
            as a function of the maximum transient amplitude
    Fig 6 Rate of surge occurrences versus voltage level
            at unprotected locations
    Fig 7 Isokeraunic levels for the United States
    Fig 8 Isokeraunic levels for the world
    Fig 9 Location categories
    Fig 10 Concept of surge immunity
    Fig 11 100 kHz ring wave
    Fig 12 Combination wave, open-circuit voltage
    Fig 13 Combination wave, short-circuit current
    Fig 14 Features of the nominal 8/20 microsecond
            waveform: front time, virtual origin, and
            duration
    Fig 15 Waveform of the EFT pulse
    Fig 16 Pattern of the EFT bursts
    Fig 17 Waveform for 10/1000 microsecond current surge
    Fig 18 Waveform for 5 kHz ring wave
    NUMEROUS APPENDIX FIGURES
    Appendix Tables
    Table A1 Number of houses with repetitive surge
              activity above 1200 V
    Table A2 Surge-counter recordings above 1200 V (spring,
              summer, and fall)
    Table A3 Capacitor energizing surges
    Table B1 Capacitance value specified for the test
              generator, according to the system voltage and
              the equipment class

    Abstract - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Gives information on surge voltages in low voltage ac power circuits. Characterises electrical distribution systems in which surges exist, based upon the data that have been recorded in interior locations on single phase and three phase residential, commercial, and industrial power distribution systems.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Document Type Standard
    Publisher Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers
    Status Current
    Supersedes

    Standards Referenced By This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    IEEE 741 : 2007 CRITERIA FOR THE PROTECTION OF CLASS 1E POWER SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT IN NUCLEAR POWER GENERATING STATIONS
    CSA C861:2010 PERFORMANCE OF SELF-BALLASTED COMPACT FLUORESCENT LAMPS AND BALLASTED ADAPTERS
    A A 50682 : 0 SCALAR NETWORK ANALYZER 10 MHZ TO 40 GHZ FREQUENCY RANGE
    CSA C870 : 2012 : INC : UPD 1:2013 PERFORMANCE OF GENERAL SERVICE LAMPS
    ANSI N42.17A : 2003 PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS FOR HEALTH PHYSICS INSTRUMENTATION - PORTABLE INSTRUMENTATION FOR USE IN NORMAL ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
    ANSI N42.17B : 1989 PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS FOR HEALTH PHYSICS INSTRUMENTATION - OCCUPATIONAL AIRBORNE RADIOACTIVITY MONITORING INSTRUMENTATION
    ASTM F 1507 : 1999 Standard Specification for Surge Suppressors for Shipboard Use
    ASTM F 1360 : 2017 : REDLINE Standard Specification for Ovens, Microwave, Electric
    NFPA 20 HDBK : 2016 STATIONARY FIRE PUMPS HANDBOOK
    ANSI N42.35 : 2006 EVALUATION AND PERFORMANCE OF RADIATION DETECTION PORTAL MONITORS FOR USE IN HOMELAND SECURITY
    IEEE 1566 : 2015 PERFORMANCE OF ADJUSTABLE-SPEED AC DRIVES RATED 375 KW AND LARGER
    IEEE C62.50 : 2012 PERFORMANCE CRITERIA AND TEST METHODS FOR PLUG-IN (PORTABLE) MULTISERVICE (MULTIPORT) SURGE-PROTECTIVE DEVICES FOR EQUIPMENT CONNECTED TO A 120 V/240 V SINGLE PHASE POWER SERVICE AND METALLIC CONDUCTIVE COMMUNICATION LINE(S)
    EN 62305-4:2011/AC:2016 PROTECTION AGAINST LIGHTNING - PART 4: ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS WITHIN STRUCTURES (IEC 62305-4:2010)
    SCTE 174 : 2010 RADIO FREQUENCY OVER GLASS FIBER-TO-THE-HOME SPECIFICATION
    15/30324832 DC BS EN 62305-4. Protection against lightning. Part 4. Electrical and electronic systems within structures
    A A 50726 : 0 TEST SET, TELEPHONE
    CAN/CSA-C870-12 (R2017) Performance of general service lamps
    SCTE 68 : 2018 DROP PASSIVES: MATCHING TRANSFORMERS 75 OHMS TO 300 OHMS
    SCTE 153 : 2016 DROP PASSIVES: SPLITTERS, COUPLERS AND POWER INSERTERS
    IEC 62305-4:2010 Protection against lightning - Part 4: Electrical and electronic systems within structures
    CAN/CSA-C871-13 (R2018) Performance of LED replacement lamps
    CEI EN 62305-4 : 2013 PROTECTION CONTRE LA FOUDRE - PARTIE 4: RESEAUX DE PUISSANCE ET DE COMMUNICATION DANS LES STRUCTURES
    NEMA PE 5-1997 (R2003) Utility-Type Battery Chargers
    NEMA LS 1-1992 (R2000) LOW VOLTAGE SURGE PROTECTION DEVICES
    ANSI C82.12-1999 LAMP BALLASTS - FLUORESCENT ADAPTERS
    NEMA SSL 4-2012 Retrofit Lamps—Minimum Performance Requirements
    ANSI C136.41 : 2013 FOR ROADWAY AND AREA LIGHTING EQUIPMENT - DIMMING CONTROL BETWEEN AN EXTERNAL LOCKING TYPE PHOTOCONTROL AND BALLAST OR DRIVER
    NEMA PE 7 : 1997(R2003) COMMUNICATIONS TYPE BATTERY CHARGERS
    AEP-62 VOL 7 : 2013 PROCEDURES FOR TESTING AND EVALUATION PERFORMANCE LEVELS OF DAS (DEFENSIVE AIDS SUITES) FOR ARMOURED VEHICLES - VOLUME 7: PROCEDURE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF INTEGRATION
    IEEE C62.42-2005 APPLICATION OF COMPONENT SURGE-PROTECTIVE DEVICES FOR USE IN LOW-VOLTAGE [EQUAL TO OR LESS THAN 1000 V (AC) OR 1200 V (DC)] CIRCUITS
    FM 3985 : 2009 TRANSIENT VOLTAGE SURGE SUPPRESSION DEVICES
    FAA AC 150/5345-49 : 2007 SPECIFICATION L-854, RADIO CONTROL EQUIPMENT
    SAE AIR 6464 : 2013 EUROCAE/SAE WG80/AE-7AFC HYDROGEN FUEL CELLS AIRCRAFT FUEL CELL SAFETY GUIDELINES
    IEEE DRAFT C62.36 : D1 JULY 99 DRAFT STANDARD TEST METHODS FOR SURGE PROTECTORS USED IN LOW-VOLTAGE DATA, COMMUNICATIONS, AND SIGNALING CIRCUITS
    BS EN 62305-4:2011 Protection against lightning Electrical and electronic systems within structures
    CSA F418 : 0 WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS (WECS) - INTERCONNECTION TO THE ELECTRIC UTILITY
    CSA C861 : 2010 : INC : UPD 1 : 2012 PERFORMANCE OF SELF-BALLASTED COMPACT FLUORESCENT LAMPS AND BALLASTED ADAPTERS
    SAE J 2578 : 2014 RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR GENERAL FUEL CELL VEHICLE SAFETY
    ASTM F 1507 : 1999 : R2006 Standard Specification for Surge Suppressors for Shipboard Use
    CSA C870:2012 PERFORMANCE OF GENERAL SERVICE LAMPS
    I.S. EN 62305-4:2011 PROTECTION AGAINST LIGHTNING - PART 4: ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS WITHIN STRUCTURES
    ANSI N42.48 : 2008 PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR SPECTROSCOPIC PERSONAL RADIATION DETECTORS (SPRDS) FOR HOMELAND SECURITY
    IEEE 1159 : 2009 RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR MONITORING ELECTRIC POWER QUALITY
    SCTE 147 : 2013 SPECIFICATION FOR 75 OHM INLINE ATTENUATORS
    ASTM F 1507 : 1999 : R2011 Standard Specification for Surge Suppressors for Shipboard Use
    API 551 : 2016 PROCESS MEASUREMENT
    IEC 61643-12:2008 Low-voltage surge protective devices - Part 12: Surge protective devices connected to low-voltage power distribution systems - Selection and application principles
    UNE-EN 62305-4:2011 Protection against lightning -- Part 4: Electrical and electronic systems within structures
    NASA KSC STD E 0012 : 2013 FACILITY GROUNDING AND LIGHTNING PROTECTION, STANDARD FOR
    ANSI N42.17C : 1989 PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS FOR HEALTH PHYSICS INSTRUMENTATION - PORTABLE INSTRUMENTATION FOR USE IN EXTREME ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
    SCTE 151 : 2015 MECHANICAL, ELECTRICAL, AND ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS FOR RF TRAPS AND FILTERS
    A A 50739 : 0 TEST SET, TELEPHONE
    A A 50741 : 0 DIVIDER, POWER, RADIO FREQUENCY
    SCTE 129 : 2017 DROP PASSIVES: BONDING BLOCKS (WITHOUT SURGE PROTECTION)
    A A 50725 : 0 TEST SET, TELEPHONE SIGNAL
    ANSI N42.33 : 2006 PORTABLE RADIATION DETECTION INSTRUMENTATION FOR HOMELAND SECURITY
    IEEE 979:2012 GUIDE FOR SUBSTATION FIRE PROTECTION
    IEEE/ANSI N42.34-2006 PERFORMANCE CRITERIA FOR HAND-HELD INSTRUMENTS FOR THE DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF RADIONUCLIDES
    CSA C861 : 2010 : R2015 PERFORMANCE OF SELF-BALLASTED COMPACT FLUORESCENT LAMPS AND BALLASTED ADAPTERS
    CAN/CSA-C875-13 (R2018) Performance of general service directional lamps
    ANSI C63.12:2015 RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY LIMITS AND TEST LEVELS
    IEEE 1703 : 2012 LOCAL AREA NETWORK/WIDE AREA NETWORK (LAN/WAN) NODE COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL TO COMPLEMENT THE UTILITY INDUSTRY END DEVICE DATA TABLES
    IEEE 323-2003 QUALIFYING CLASS 1E EQUIPMENT FOR NUCLEAR POWER GENERATING STATIONS
    SCTE 76 : 2012 ANTENNA SELECTOR SWITCHES
    ASTM F 1507 : 1999 : R2017 Standard Specification for Surge Suppressors for Shipboard Use
    ASHRAE 90.4 : 2016 ENERGY STANDARD FOR DATA CENTERS
    I.S. CLC TS 61643-12:2006 LOW-VOLTAGE SURGE PROTECTIVE DEVICES - PART 12: SURGE PROTECTIVE DEVICES CONNECTED TO LOW-VOLTAGE POWER SYSTEMS - SELECTION AND APPLICATION PRINCIPLES

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    IEEE C37.90-2005 RELAYS AND RELAY SYSTEMS ASSOCIATED WITH ELECTRIC POWER APPARATUS
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