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BS 9999:2008

Superseded

Superseded

A superseded Standard is one, which is fully replaced by another Standard, which is a new edition of the same Standard.

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superseded

A superseded Standard is one, which is fully replaced by another Standard, which is a new edition of the same Standard.

Code of practice for fire safety in the design, management and use of buildings

Available format(s)

Hardcopy , PDF

Superseded date

28-02-2017

Language(s)

English

Published date

31-10-2008

Foreword
Section 1: General
0 Introduction
1 Scope
2 Normative references
3 Terms and definitions
4 General recommendations and background
   4.1 Spread of fire and smoke
   4.2 Variation of guidance
   4.3 Property and business continuity protection
   4.4 Environment
   4.5 Additional recommendations for specific building
         types/occupancies
   4.6 Inclusive design
Section 2: Risk profiles and assessing risk
5 Assessing risk
6 Risk profiles
   6.1 General
   6.2 Occupancy characteristic
   6.3 Fire growth rate
   6.4 Creating the risk profile
   6.5 Variation of risk profile
Section 3: Ensuring effective fire protection
7 Ensuring effective fire protection
   7.1 General
   7.2 The design stage
   7.3 The construction stage
   7.4 The maintenance stage
Section 4: Managing fire safety
8 Establishing management levels
   8.1 Management of the fire safety strategy
   8.2 Management levels
   8.3 Assessing the management levels
9 Fire safety manual
10 Designing so that a building can be managed
   10.1 General
   10.2 Management input
   10.3 Designing for the management of fire prevention
   10.4 Designing for the management of fire protection
Section 5: Designing means of escape
11 Principles of means of escape
12 Evacuation strategy
   12.1 General
   12.2 Categories of evacuation procedure
   12.3 Total evacuation
   12.4 Progressive evacuation
13 Internal subdivision and spatial/visual orientation
   13.1 General
   13.2 Compartments
   13.3 Cellular planning
   13.4 Open storey (horizontal)planning
   13.5 Atria
   13.6 High fire risk areas
   13.7 Process plant and outdoor structures
14 Designing means of escape
   14.1 General
   14.2 Acceptable means of escape
   14.3 Generally unacceptable means of escape
15 Allocation of risk profile
   15.1 General
   15.2 Enclosure of fire risks
16 Minimum package of fire protection
   16.1 General
   16.2 Fire detection and alarm systems
   16.3 Artificial and emergency escape lighting
   16.4 Exit signs
   16.5 Doors
   16.6 Protected power circuits
   16.7 Lifts
   16.8 Mechanical ventilation and air conditioning systems
   16.9 Refuse chutes and storage
17 Horizontal means of escape
   17.1 General
   17.2 Number of occupants
   17.3 Layout and number of escape routes and exits
   17.4 Travel distance
   17.5 Cellular plan floors
   17.6 Width of doors, corridors and escape routes
   17.7 Methods of horizontal escape for disabled people
18 Vertical means of escape
   18.1 General
   18.2 Design of escape stairs
   18.3 Number of escape stairs
   18.4 Width of escape stairs
   18.5 Basement stairs
   18.6 Protected stairs
   18.7 External escape stairs
   18.8 Methods of vertical escape for disabled people
19 Additional fire protection measures
   19.1 General
   19.2 Automatic detection and informative warning systems
   19.3 Effect of ceiling heights
   19.4 Maximum acceptable variations
Section 6: Access and facilities for fire-fighting
20 General recommendations for fire-fighting facilities
21 Facilities for fire-fighting
   21.1 General
   21.2 Fire-fighting shafts
   21.3 Fire-fighting stairs and lifts
22 Vehicle access
   22.1 General
   22.2 Buildings not fitted with fire mains
   22.3 Access for high-reach appliances
   22.4 Buildings fitted with fire mains
23 Water supplies for fire and rescue service use
   23.1 Fire mains
   23.2 Location and access to external water supply
24 Communications systems for fire and rescue service use
25 Fire control centre
26 Fire-fighters' emergency switches for discharge lighting
   installation
27 Drawings for fire and rescue service use
28 Heat and smoke control
   28.1 General
   28.2 Smoke control for fire-fighting shafts
   28.3 Venting of smoke and heat from basements
   28.4 Venting of smoke and heat from car parks
   28.5 Smoke and heat ventilation from loading docks and
         covered service roadways
29 Electrical services
Section 7: Designing the building structure (load-bearing and
           non-load-bearing elements)
30 Designing the building structure - General
31 Fire resistance
   31.1 Elements of structure
   31.2 Minimum levels of fire resistance
   31.3 Glazed fire-resisting elements
32 Compartmentation
   32.1 General
   32.2 Fire resistance of compartments
   32.3 Size of compartments
   32.4 Provision of compartmentation
   32.5 Construction of compartment walls and compartment
         floors
33 Openings
   33.1 Fire doors
   33.2 Shutter assemblies
   33.3 Access panels
   33.4 Service ducts, pipes and shafts
   33.5 Fire-stopping
34 Concealed spaces
   34.1 General
   34.2 Provision of cavity barriers
   34.3 Extensive cavities
   34.4 Construction and fixings for cavity barriers
35 Materials and finishes
   35.1 Classification and use of internal wall and ceiling
         linings
   35.2 Special roof coverings
   35.3 Insulating core panels
36 External fire spread between neighbouring buildings
   36.1 General
   36.2 Boundaries
   36.3 Unprotected area
   36.4 Degree of separation
   36.5 Roofs
   36.6 External fire spread over the external faces of
         buildings
37 Accommodation ancillary to the main use of the building
   37.1 Engineering services installation rooms
   37.2 Waste storage and treatment
   37.3 Main storage areas (including receiving and
         dispatch areas)
38 Engineering services
   38.1 Gas services
   38.2 Electrical services
   38.3 Enclosure of engineering services
   38.4 Lighting
   38.5 Heating systems
   38.6 Lifts, escalators, moving walks and goods conveyors
   38.7 Incinerators
Section 8: Special risk protection
39 Special risk protection
Section 9: Managing occupied buildings
40 Commissioning and hand-over
   40.1 Management issues
   40.2 Approvals and certification
41 Managing occupied buildings
   41.1 Appointment of fire safety manager and other personnel
   41.2 Management organization and structure
   41.3 Overview of the fire safety manager's responsibilities
   41.4 Buildings occupied by more than one organization
   41.5 Public areas
   41.6 Tenants, concessionaires and residents
   41.7 Caretakers
   41.8 Continuing control and audit procedures
   41.9 Communications
42 Fire prevention
   42.1 General
   42.2 Housekeeping
   42.3 Audience/crowd control
   42.4 Arson
   42.5 Conflicts between security and means of escape
   42.6 Contractors and subcontractors on the premises and hot
         work
   42.7 Maintenance of building plant and equipment
43 Ensuring that systems respond properly in an emergency
   43.1 General
   43.2 Escape routes
   43.3 Maintenance of fire safety equipment and provisions
44 Planning the response to a fire
   44.1 General
   44.2 The fire routine
   44.3 Provision for people at particular risk
   44.4 Fire control centre functions
   44.5 Evacuation management
   44.6 Test evacuations (fire drills)
   44.7 False alarms
   44.8 Contingency planning for business interruption
   44.9 Protection of building structure, contents, and the
         environment
   44.10 Salvage and damage control
45 Emergency actions
   45.1 General
   45.2 Action on discovery
   45.3 Warning and evacuation signals
   45.4 Calling the fire and rescue service
   45.5 Evacuation procedures
   45.6 Fighting the fire
   45.7 Receiving the fire and rescue service
   45.8 Completion of evacuation
   45.9 Re-entry to the building
   45.10 After the incident
46 Evacuation of disabled people
   46.1 General
   46.2 Mobility-impaired people
   46.3 Wheelchair users
   46.4 People who are deaf and hard of hearing
   46.5 Blind and partially sighted people
   46.6 People with cognitive disabilities
   46.7 Use of personal emergency evacuation plans
   46.8 Use of refuges
   46.9 Evacuation using lifts
   46.10 Evacuation using stairways
   46.11 Test evacuations for people requiring assistance
   46.12 Fire instructions and training
47 Management of fire safety prior to full occupation of a
   building
48 Building works, alterations, decommissioning and
   demolition
   48.1 General
   48.2 Hot work
   48.3 Change of use of buildings
   48.4 Units in disuse and areas decommissioned
Annexes
Annex A (normative) - Additional considerations for property
        and business continuity protection
Annex B (normative) - Recommendations for atria
Annex C (informative) - Design solutions and exemplars for atria
Annex D (normative) - Recommendations for theatres, cinemas and
        similar venues
Annex E (normative) - Recommendations for shopping complexes
Annex F (normative) - Process plant and outdoor structures
Annex G (normative) - Recommendations for refuges and evacuation
        lifts
Annex H (normative) - Fire safety manual
Annex I (normative) - Fire control centre and evacuation
        management
Annex J (informative) - Fire safety equipment, facilities and
        systems
Annex K (informative) - Signs and signage
Annex L (informative) - Typical arrangements to keep
        fire-fighting lift wells free from water
Annex M (normative) - Operational information (emergency
        packs)for the fire and rescue service
Annex N (normative) - Commissioning and hand-over of smoke
        control systems
Annex O (normative) - Fire safety training
Annex P (normative) - Control of conditions in public areas
Annex Q (normative) - Recommendations for owners of
        multi-occupancy residential buildings
Annex R (informative) - Advice to occupiers of dwellings in
        residential buildings
Annex S (informative) - Examples of fire instruction notices
Annex T (normative) - Audience/crowd control
Annex U (normative) - Hot work
Annex V (normative) - Routine inspection and maintenance of fire
        safety installations
Annex W (normative) - Routine inspection and maintenance of
        ventilation and air conditioning ductwork
Annex X (normative) - Phased evacuation
Annex Y (informative) - Examples of evacuation strategies
Annex Z (informative) - Example messages for use in a phased
        evacuation
Bibliography
Index

Provides recommendations and guidance on the design, management and use of buildings to achieve reasonable standards of fire safety for all people in and around buildings.

Committee
FSH/14
DevelopmentNote
Supersedes BS 5588-0(1996), BS 5588-5(2004), BS 5588-6(1991), BS 5588-7(1997), BS 5588-8(1999), BS 5588-9(1999), BS 5588-10(1991), BS 5588-11(1997), BS 5588-12(2004), BS DD9999(2005) and 08/30158435 DC. (10/2008)
DocumentType
Standard
Pages
459
PublisherName
British Standards Institution
Status
Superseded
SupersededBy
Supersedes

93/68/EEC : 1993 AMD 2 1998 COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 93/68/EEC OF 22.7.93 AMENDING DIRECTIVES 87/404/EEC, 88/378/EEC, 89/106/EEC, 89/336/EEC, 89/392/EEC, 89/686/EEC, 90/384/EEC, 90/385/EEC, 90/396/EEC, 91/263/EEC, 92/42/EEC AND 73/23/EEC
BS EN 1158:1997 Building hardware. Door coordinator devices. Requirements and test methods
BS ISO 10294-5:2005 Fire-resistance tests. Fire dampers for air distribution systems Intumescent fire dampers
BS 5234-2:1992 Partitions (including matching linings) Specification for performance requirements for strength and robustness including methods of test
BS 8414-1:2002 Fire performance of external cladding systems Test methods for non-loadbearing external cladding systems applied to the face of a building
BS 5651:1989 Method for cleansing and wetting procedures for use in the assessment of the effect of cleansing and wetting on the flammability of textile fabrics and fabric assemblies
BS EN 1021-1:2014 Furniture. Assessment of the ignitability of upholstered furniture Ignition source smouldering cigarette
BS 7346-3:1990 Components for smoke and heat control systems Specification for smoke curtains
BS 7346-4:2003 Components for smoke and heat control systems Functional recommendations and calculation methods for smoke and heat exhaust ventilation systems, employing steady-state design fires. Code of practice
BS EN ISO 12543-2:2011 Glass in building. Laminated glass and laminated safety glass Laminated safety glass
BS 8486-1(2007) : 2007 EXAMINATION AND TEST OF NEW LIFTS BEFORE PUTTING INTO SERVICE - SPECIFICATION FOR MEANS OF DETERMINING COMPLIANCE WITH BS EN 81 - PART 1: ELECTRIC LIFTS
BS EN 54-7:2001 Fire detection and fire alarm systems Smoke detectors. Point detectors using scattered light, transmitted light or ionization
BS 8414-2:2005 Fire performance of external cladding systems Test method for non-loadbearing external cladding systems fixed to and supported by a structural steel frame
BS EN 1634-1 : 2014 FIRE RESISTANCE AND SMOKE CONTROL TESTS FOR DOOR AND SHUTTER ASSEMBLIES, OPENABLE WINDOWS AND ELEMENTS OF BUILDING HARDWARE - PART 1: FIRE RESISTANCE TEST FOR DOOR AND SHUTTER ASSEMBLIES AND OPENABLE WINDOWS
BS 5656-2:2004 Escalator and moving walks. Safety rules for the construction and installation of escalators and moving walks Code of practice for the selection, installation and location of new escalators and moving walks
BS EN 1366-7:2004 Fire resistance tests for service installations Conveyor systems and their closures
CEN/CLC Guide 6:2014 Guide for addressing accessibility in standards
BS 5234-1:1992 Partitions (including matching linings) Code of practice for design and installation
BS EN 1155:1997 Building hardware. Electrically powered hold-open devices for swing doors. Requirements and test methods
BS 5655-6:2002 Lifts and service lifts Code of practice for the selection and installation of new lifts
BS 25999-1:2006 BUSINESS CONTINUITY MANAGEMENT - PART 1: CODE OF PRACTICE
BS EN ISO 13943:2017 Fire safety. Vocabulary
BS 9990:2006 Code of practice for non-automatic fire-fighting systems in buildings
BS 5516-2:2004 Patent glazing and sloping glazing for buildings Code of practice for sloping glazing
89/106/EEC : 1988 COUNCIL DIRECTIVE OF 21 DECEMBER 1988 ON THE APPROXIMATION OF LAWS, REGULATIONS AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS OF THE MEMBER STATES RELATING TO CONSTRUCTION PRODUCTS
BS 5306-5.2:1984 Code of practice for fire extinguishing installations and equipment on premises. Halon systems Halon 1211 total flooding systems
BS 7346-7:2006 Components for smoke and heat control systems Code of practice on functional recommendations and calculation methods for smoke and heat control systems for covered car parks
BS EN 1634-3:2004 Fire resistance and smoke control tests for door and shutter assemblies, openable windows and elements of building hardware Smoke control test for door and shutter assemblies
BS 8491:2008 Method for assessment of fire integrity of large diameter power cables for use as components for smoke and heat control systems and certain other active fire safety systems
BS 5306-6.1:1988 Fire extinguishing installations and equipment on premises. Foam systems Specification for low expansion foam systems
BS 8486-2(2007) : 2007 EXAMINATION AND TEST OF NEW LIFTS BEFORE PUTTING INTO SERVICE - SPECIFICATION FOR MEANS OF DETERMINING COMPLIANCE WITH BS EN 81 - PART 2: HYDRAULIC LIFTS
BS EN 1991-1-2:2002 Eurocode 1. Actions on structures General actions. Actions on structures exposed to fire
PD 6520:1988 Guide to fire test methods for building materials and elements of construction
BS EN 1125:2008 Building hardware. Panic exit devices operated by a horizontal bar, for use on escape routes. Requirements and test methods
BS 6262-4:2005 Glazing for buildings Code of practice for safety related to human impact
BS EN 60702-2 : 2002 MINERAL INSULATED CABLES AND THEIR TERMINATIONS WITH A RATED VOLTAGE NOT EXCEEDING 750 V - PART 2: TERMINATIONS
BS 7671(2008) : 2008 REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS - IET WIRING REGULATIONS
BS EN 1021-2:2014 Furniture. Assessment of the ignitability of upholstered furniture Ignition source match flame equivalent
BS 5852:2006 Methods of test for assessment of the ignitability of upholstered seating by smouldering and flaming ignition sources
BS EN ISO 1182:2010 Reaction to fire tests for products. Non-combustibility test
BS 5306-0:1986 Fire extinguishing installations and equipment on premises Guide for the selection of installed systems and other fire equipment
BS 5266-7(1999) : 1999 LIGHTING APPLICATIONS - EMERGENCY LIGHTING
DD ENV 1187:2002 Test methods for external fire exposure to roofs
BS EN 115:1995 Safety rules for the construction and installation of escalators and passenger conveyors.
BS 7807:1995 Code of practice for design, installation and servicing of integrated systems incorporating fire detection and alarm systems and/or other security systems for buildings other than dwellings
PD 7974-3:2003 Application of fire safety engineering principles to the design of buildings Structural response and fire spread beyond the enclosure of origin (Sub-system 3)
BS EN 12150-1:2015 Glass in building. Thermally toughened soda lime silicate safety glass Definition and description
BS EN ISO 14122-4:2016 Safety of machinery. Permanent means of access to machinery Fixed ladders
BS EN 12845:2015 Fixed firefighting systems. Automatic sprinkler systems. Design, installation and maintenance
BS 5306-6.2:1989 Fire extinguishing installations and equipment on premises. Foam systems Specification for medium and high expansion foam systems
BS 5438:1989 Methods of test for flammability of textile fabrics when subjected to a small igniting flame applied to the face or bottom edge of vertically oriented specimens
BS 5839-3:1988 Fire detection and alarm systems for buildings Specification for automatic release mechanisms for certain fire protection equipment
BS 7157:1989 Method of test for ignitability of fabrics used in the construction of large tented structures
BS 6187:2000 Code of practice for demolition
BS 5410-1:1997 Code of practice for oil firing Installations up to 45 kW output capacity for space heating and hot water supply purposes
BS EN ISO 1716:2010 Reaction to fire tests for products. Determination of the gross heat of combustion (calorific value)
BS 5410-2:1978 Code of practice for oil firing Installations of 45 kW and above output capacity for space heating, hot water and steam supply services
BS 7346-6:2005 Components for smoke and heat control systems Specifications for cable systems
BS 8300:2001 Design of buildings and their approaches to meet the needs of disabled people. Code of practice
PD 7974-7:2003 Application of fire safety engineering principles to the design of buildings Probabilistic risk assessment
BS 5395-2:1984 Stairs, ladders and walkways Code of practice for the design of helical and spiral stairs
BS EN 13823 : 2010 REACTION TO FIRE TESTS FOR BUILDING PRODUCTS - BUILDING PRODUCTS EXCLUDING FLOORINGS EXPOSED TO THE THERMAL ATTACK BY A SINGLE BURNING ITEM
PD 7974-1:2003 Application of fire safety engineering principles to the design of buildings Initiation and development of fire within the enclosure of origin (Sub-system 1)
BS 7974:2001 Application of fire safety engineering principles to the design of buildings. Code of practice
BS 9251:2005 Sprinkler systems for residential and domestic occupancies. Code of practice
BS 3251:1976 Specification. Indicator plates for fire hydrants and emergency water supplies
BS EN 60702-1 : 2002 MINERAL INSULATED CABLES AND THEIR TERMINATIONS WITH A RATED VOLTAGE NOT EXCEEDING 750 V - PART 1: CABLES
BS 4422:2005 Fire. Vocabulary
BS EN 179:2008 Building hardware. Emergency exit devices operated by a lever handle or push pad, for use on escape routes. Requirements and test methods
BS EN 1154:1997 Building hardware. Controlled door closing devices. Requirements and test methods
BS EN 1838:2013 Lighting applications. Emergency lighting
BS EN 12416-2:2001 Fixed firefighting systems. Powder systems Design, construction and maintenance
ISO 834-1:1999 Fire-resistance tests Elements of building construction Part 1: General requirements
BS 5306-3:2003 Fire extinguishing installations and equipment on premises Code of practice for the inspection and maintenance of portable fire extinguishers
BS EN 54-11:2001 Fire detection and fire alarm systems Manual call points
BS EN 1993-1-2:2005 Eurocode 3. Design of steel structures General rules - Structural fire design
BS 5839-9:2003 Fire detection and alarm systems for buildings Code of practice for the design, installation, commissioning and maintenance of emergency voice communication systems
BS 7273-4:2007 Code of practice for the operation of fire protection measures Actuation of release mechanisms for doors
BS EN 14179-1:2005 Glass in building. Heat-soaked thermally-toughened soda lime silicate safety glass Definition and description
BS EN ISO 306:2013 Plastics. Thermoplastic materials. Determination of Vicat softening temperature (VST)

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