• IEEE C57.147 : 2008

    Superseded A superseded Standard is one, which is fully replaced by another Standard, which is a new edition of the same Standard.

    ACCEPTANCE AND MAINTENANCE OF NATURAL ESTER FLUIDS IN TRANSFORMERS

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF

    Superseded date:  15-10-2021

    Language(s):  English

    Published date:  01-01-2008

    Publisher:  Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers

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    Table of Contents - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    1 Overview
      1.1 Scope
      1.2 Purpose
      1.3 System design
      1.4 Background information on mixtures of natural ester fluids
          with other dielectric liquids
    2 Normative references
    3 Acronyms and abbreviations
    4 Fluid tests and the significance of each test
      4.1 General
      4.2 Practices for sampling (ASTM D923 and ASTM D3305)
      4.3 Acid number (ASTM D664 and ASTM D974)
      4.4 Dielectric breakdown voltage (ASTM D1816)
      4.5 Dielectric breakdown voltage - Impulse conditions (ASTM D3300)
      4.6 AC loss characteristics - Dissipation factor and relative
           permittivity (ASTM D924)
      4.7 Interfacial tension (ASTM D971)
      4.8 Color (ASTM D1500)
      4.9 Kinematic viscosity (ASTM D445)
      4.10 Flash point and fire point - Cleveland Open Cup Method
           (ASTM D92)
      4.11 Relative density (ASTM D1298)
      4.12 Pour point (ASTM D97)
      4.13 Volume resistivity (ASTM D1169)
      4.14 Gas analysis (ASTM D3612)
      4.15 Oxidation stability
      4.16 Water content - Karl Fischer Method (ASTM D1533)
      4.17 Visual examination field test (ASTM D1524 and ASTM D1500)
      4.18 Gassing of insulating oils under electrical stress and
           ionization (ASTM D2300)
      4.19 Corrosive sulfur test (ASTM D1275, Method B)
      4.20 Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (ASTM D4059)
    5 Fluid compatibility with transformer materials
    6 Handling and evaluation of natural ester fluids for use in
      filling transformers at the installation site
      6.1 General
      6.2 Shipping containers
      6.3 Check tests on receipt
      6.4 Handling of the fluid by the user and placing the fluid in
          storage
      6.5 Handling and testing of natural ester fluids for installation
          into apparatus
    7 Evaluation of natural ester fluids received in new equipment
      and after filling apparatus on-site
    8 Maintenance of natural ester fluids
      8.1 Field screening
      8.2 Laboratory screening
      8.3 Test limits for service-aged natural ester fluids
      8.4 Reconditioning
      8.5 Reclaiming
      8.6 Mixtures of different types of dielectric fluids
    9 Safety and environmental care procedures
      9.1 General
      9.2 Leaks
      9.3 Minor spills
      9.4 Spills on soil
      9.5 Spills on water
    Annex A (informative) Bibliography
    Annex B (informative) Additional technical information

    Abstract - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Suggests tests and evaluation procedures, as well as criteria and methods of maintenance, for natural ester-based transformer insulating fluids. These base fluids are also known as vegetable seed oils. Methods of reconditioning natural ester-based insulating fluids are also described.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Document Type Standard
    Publisher Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers
    Status Superseded
    Superseded By

    Standards Referenced By This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    CEI EN 60076-14 : 2014 POWER TRANSFORMERS - PART 14: LIQUID-IMMERSED POWER TRANSFORMERS USING HIGH-TEMPERATURE INSULATION MATERIALS
    12/30257150 DC : 0 BS EN 62770 - FLUIDS FOR ELECTROTECHNICAL APPLICATIONS - UNUSED NATURAL ESTERS LIQUIDS FOR TRANSFORMERS AND SIMILAR ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
    12/30263868 DC : 0 BS EN 60076-14 - POWER TRANSFORMERS - PART 14: LIQUID-IMMERSED POWER TRANSFORMERS USING HIGH-TEMPERATURE INSULATION MATERIALS
    IEEE C57.154 : 2012 DESIGN, TESTING, AND APPLICATION OF LIQUID-IMMERSED DISTRIBUTION, POWER, AND REGULATING TRANSFORMERS USING HIGH-TEMPERATURE INSULATION SYSTEMS AND OPERATING AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES
    IEEE C57.32 : 2015 REQUIREMENTS, TERMINOLOGY, AND TEST PROCEDURES FOR NEUTRAL GROUNDING DEVICES
    I.S. EN 60076-14:2013 POWER TRANSFORMERS - PART 14: LIQUIDIMMERSED POWER TRANSFORMERS USING HIGH-TEMPERATURE INSULATION MATERIALS (IEC 60076-14:2013 (EQV))
    IEC TS 60076-14:2009 Power transformers - Part 14: Design and application of liquid-immersed power transformers using high-temperature insulation materials
    BS EN 60076-14:2013 Power transformers Liquid-immersed power transformers using high-temperature insulation materials
    UNE-EN 60076-14:2014 Power transformers - Part 14: Liquid-immersed power transformers using high-temperature insulation materials
    CEI EN 62770 : 2014 FLUIDS FOR ELECTROTECHNICAL APPLICATIONS - UNUSED NATURAL ESTERS FOR TRANSFORMERS AND SIMILAR ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
    IEEE C57.152 : 2013 GUIDE FOR DIAGNOSTIC FIELD TESTING OF FLUID-FILLED POWER TRANSFORMERS, REGULATORS, AND REACTORS
    BS EN 62770:2014 Fluids for electrotechnical applications. Unused natural esters for transformers and similar electrical equipment
    IEC 62770:2013 Fluids for electrotechnical applications - Unused natural esters for transformers and similar electrical equipment
    IEEE C57.12.38 : 2014 PAD-MOUNTED-TYPE, SELF-COOLED, SINGLE-PHASE DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS 250 KVA AND SMALLER: HIGH VOLTAGE, 34 500 GRDY/19 920 V AND BELOW; LOW VOLTAGE, 480/240 V AND BELOW
    IEEE C57.140 : 2006 EVALUATION AND RECONDITIONING OF LIQUID IMMERSED POWER TRANSFORMERS
    I.S. EN 62770:2014 FLUIDS FOR ELECTROTECHNICAL APPLICATIONS - UNUSED NATURAL ESTERS FOR TRANSFORMERS AND SIMILAR ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
    IEC 60076-14:2013 Power transformers - Part 14: Liquid-immersed power transformers using high-temperature insulation materials
    DD IEC TS 60076-14 : DRAFT 2009 POWER TRANSFORMERS - PART 14: DESIGN AND APPLICATION OF LIQUID-IMMERSED POWER TRANSFORMERS USING HIGH-TEMPERATURE INSULATION MATERIALS
    UNE-EN 62770:2014 Fluids for electrotechnical applications - Unused natural esters for transformers and similar electrical equipment
    IEEE C57.12.00-2015 STANDARD FOR GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR LIQUID-IMMERSED DISTRIBUTION, POWER, AND REGULATING TRANSFORMERS
    EN 62770 : 2014 FLUIDS FOR ELECTROTECHNICAL APPLICATIONS - UNUSED NATURAL ESTERS FOR TRANSFORMERS AND SIMILAR ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT (IEC 62770:2013)
    EN 60076-14 : 2013 POWER TRANSFORMERS - PART 14: LIQUID-IMMERSED POWER TRANSFORMERS USING HIGH-TEMPERATURE INSULATION MATERIALS

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    IEEE 62-1995 GUIDE FOR DIAGNOSTIC FIELD TESTING OF ELECTRIC POWER APPARATUS - OIL FILLED POWER TRANSFORMERS, REGULATORS, AND REACTORS
    ASTM D 1816 : 2012 : REDLINE Standard Test Method for Dielectric Breakdown Voltage of Insulating Liquids Using VDE Electrodes
    ASTM D 924 : 2015 : REDLINE Standard Test Method for Dissipation Factor (or Power Factor) and Relative Permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of Electrical Insulating Liquids
    CFR 40(PTS100-135) : JUL 2017 PROTECTION OF ENVIRONMENT
    IEC 61099:2010 Insulating liquids - Specifications for unused synthetic organic esters for electrical purposes
    ASTM D 1275 : 2015 Standard Test Method for Corrosive Sulfur in Electrical Insulating Liquids
    ASTM D 1533 : 2012 : REDLINE Standard Test Method for Water in Insulating Liquids by Coulometric Karl Fischer Titration
    ASTM D 2440 : 2013 : REDLINE Standard Test Method for Oxidation Stability of Mineral Insulating Oil
    IEEE C57.104 : 2008 INTERPRETATION OF GASES GENERATED IN OIL-IMMERSED TRANSFORMERS
    IEEE 637 : 1985 RECLAMATION OF INSULATING OIL AND CRITERIA FOR ITS USE, GUIDE FOR THE
    IEEE C2 : 2017 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL SAFETY CODE (NESC)(R)
    CFR 40(PTS700-789) : JUL 2016 PROTECTION OF ENVIRONMENT - ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
    NFPA 70 : 2017 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE
    ASTM D 1524 : 2015 : REDLINE Standard Test Method for Visual Examination of Used Electrical Insulating Liquids in the Field
    ASTM D 5837 : 2015 : REDLINE Standard Test Method for Furanic Compounds in Electrical Insulating Liquids by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)
    ASTM D 923 : 2015 : REDLINE Standard Practices for Sampling Electrical Insulating Liquids
    IEEE 980 : 2013 GUIDE FOR CONTAINMENT AND CONTROL OF OIL SPILLS IN SUBSTATIONS
    IEC 61203:1992 Synthetic organic esters for electrical purposes - Guide for maintenance of transformer esters in equipment
    ASTM D 2112 : 2015 : REDLINE Standard Test Method for Oxidation Stability of Inhibited Mineral Insulating Oil by Pressure Vessel
    ASTM D 3300 : 2012 : REDLINE Standard Test Method for Dielectric Breakdown Voltage of Insulating Oils of Petroleum Origin Under Impulse Conditions
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