• IEC 60755:2017

    Current The latest, up-to-date edition.

    General safety requirements for residual current operated protective devices

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF, PDF 3 Users, PDF 5 Users, PDF 9 Users

    Language(s): 

    Published date:  26-10-2017

    Publisher:  International Electrotechnical Committee

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    Table of Contents - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    FOREWORD
    INTRODUCTION
    1 Scope
    2 Normative references
    3 Terms and definitions
    4 Classification
    5 Characteristics of residual current
      devices
    6 Marking and other product information
    7 Conditions for operation in service and
      for installation
    8 Requirements for construction and operation
    9 Preparation of test clauses for RCD product
      standards and of test clauses for RCD
      incorporated or embedded in an equipment
    Annex A (informative) - Recommended diagram
            for short-circuit tests
    Annex B (informative) - Possible load and fault
            currents
    Annex C (informative) - Correspondence between
            clauses and modules
    Annex D (informative) - Relationship with product
            standards
    Bibliography

    Abstract - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    IEC 60775:2017(E) provides general minimum requirements, recommendations and information for the drafting of standards on residual current operated protective devices (hereinafter referred to as residual current devices, "RCDs"). It applies to any device providing residual current protection intended primarily for protection against electric shock hazard.
    This first edition cancels and replaces IEC TR 60755 published in 2008 and constitutes a technical revision.
    This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to IEC TR 60755:
    a. restructuration of the document, as a Group Safety Publication, in compliance with Guide 104;
    b. introduction of classification for type F RCDs;
    c. introduction of Clause 9 for tests of RCDs (operating characteristics, electrical endurance, behaviour in short-circuit conditions, trip-free mechanism, test device, surges, reliability, EMC).
    It has the status of a group safety publication in accordance with IEC Guide 104.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee TC 23/SC 23E
    Development Note Supersedes IEC TR 60755. Stability Date: 2022. (10/2017)
    Document Type Standard
    Publisher International Electrotechnical Committee
    Status Current
    Supersedes

    Standards Referenced By This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    IEEE 303-2004 IEEE Recommended Practice for Auxiliary Devices for Rotating Electrical Machines in Class I, Division 2 and Zone 2 Locations
    CSA C61400-3 : 2011 : R2016 WIND TURBINES - PART 3: DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR OFFSHORE WIND TURBINES
    NF EN 62020 : 1999 AMD 1 2005 ELECTRICAL ACCESSORIES - RESIDUAL CURRENT MONITORS FOR HOUSEHOLD AND SIMILAR USES (RCMS)
    CSA C22.2 No. 62109-1 : 2016 SAFETY OF POWER CONVERTERS FOR USE IN PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER SYSTEMS - PART 1: GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
    I.S. EN 62109-1:2010 SAFETY OF POWER CONVERTERS FOR USE IN PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER SYSTEMS - PART 1: GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
    01/219351 DC : DRAFT JAN 2001 IEC 60364-5-53/A1 ED.2 - ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS OF BUILDINGS - PART 5-53: SELECTION AND ERECTION OF ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT - SWITCHGEAR AND CONTROLGEAR
    06/30158289 DC : 0 BS EN 62040-1 - UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SYSTEMS (UPS) - PART 1: GENERAL AND SAFETY REQUIREMENTS
    07/30159711 DC : 0 BS EN 61557-11 - ELECTRICAL SAFETY IN LOW VOLTAGE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS UP TO 1000 V A.C. AND 1500 V D.C. - EQUIPMENT FOR TESTING, MEASURING OR MONITORING OF PROTECTIVE MEASURES - PART 11: EFFECTIVENESS OF RESIDUAL CURRENT MONITORS (RCMS) TYPE A AND TYPE B IN TT, TN AND IT SYSTEMS
    12/30268015 DC : 0 BS EN 62135-1 - RESISTANCE WELDING EQUIPMENT - PART 1: SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR DESIGN, MANUFACTURE AND INSTALLATION
    EN 50178:1997 Electronic equipment for use in power installations
    EN 50091-1-1:1996/corrigendum Aug. 2004
    EN 61400-3:2009 Wind turbines - Part 3: Design requirements for offshore wind turbines
    04/30113660 DC : DRAFT MAY 2004 IEC 60079-7 - ELECTRICAL APPARATUS FOR EXPLOSIVE GAS ATMOSPHERES - PART 7: INCREASED SAFETY 'E'
    BS EN 61400-3:2009 Wind turbines Design requirements for offshore wind turbines
    BS EN 62310-1 : 2005 STATIC TRANSFER SYSTEMS (STS) - PART 1: GENERAL AND SAFETY REQUIREMENTS
    BS EN 61557-6:1998 ELECTRICAL SAFETY IN LOW VOLTAGE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS UP TO 1000 V A.C. AND 1500 V D.C. - EQUIPMENT FOR TESTING, MEASURING OR MONITORING OF PROTECTIVE MEASURES - PART 6: EFFECTIVENESS OF RESIDUAL CURRENT DEVICES (RCD) IN TT, TN AND IT SYSTEMS
    03/307802 DC : DRAFT MAY 2003 EN 61008-1 - RESIDUAL CURRENT OPERATED CIRCUIT-BREAKERS WITHOUT INTEGRAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION FOR HOUSEHOLD AND SIMILAR USES (RCCB'S) - PART 1: GENERAL RULES
    DD IEC TS 62257-5 : DRAFT 2005 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR SMALL RENEWABLE ENERGY AND HYBRID SYSTEMS FOR RURAL ELECTRIFICATION - PART 5: PROTECTION AGAINST ELECTRICAL HAZARDS
    BS EN 50178:1998 Electronic equipment for use in power installations
    I.S. EN 62310-1:2005 STATIC TRANSFER SYSTEMS (STS) - PART 1: GENERAL AND SAFETY REQUIREMENTS
    BS EN 50019 : 2000 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS FOR POTENTIALLY EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERES - INCREASED SAFETY 'E'
    BIS IS 16242-1 : 2014 AMD 1 2018 UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SYSTEMS (UPS) - PART 1: GENERAL AND SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR UPS
    I.S. HD 60364-7-712:2006 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS OF BUILDINGS - PART 7-712: REQUIREMENTS FOR SPECIAL INSTALLATIONS OR LOCATIONS - SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC (PV) POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS
    IEC 60364-7-710:2002 Electrical installations of buildings - Part 7-710: Requirements for special installations or locations - Medical locations
    I.S. EN 61800-5-1:2007 ADJUSTABLE SPEED ELECTRICAL POWER DRIVE SYSTEMS - PART 5-1: SAFETY REQUIREMENTS - ELECTRICAL, THERMAL AND ENERGY
    I.S. EN 62040-1:2008 UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SYSTEMS (UPS) - PART 1: GENERAL AND SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR UPS (IEC 62040-1:2008 (EQV))
    EN 60079-14:2014/AC:2016 EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERES - PART 14: ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS DESIGN, SELECTION AND ERECTION (IEC 60079-14:2013/COR1:2016)
    EN 61800-5-1:2007/A1:2017 ADJUSTABLE SPEED ELECTRICAL POWER DRIVE SYSTEMS - PART 5-1: SAFETY REQUIREMENTS - ELECTRICAL, THERMAL AND ENERGY (IEC 61800-5-1:2007/A1:2016)
    BS 7909:2008 CODE OF PRACTICE FOR TEMPORARY ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS FOR ENTERTAINMENT AND RELATED PURPOSES
    BIS IS/IEC 60947-2 : 2003 LOW-VOLTAGE SWITCHGEAR AND CONTROLGEAR - PART 2: CIRCUIT BREAKERS
    CEI EN 61400-3 : 2009 WIND TURBINES - PART 3: DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR OFFSHORE WIND TURBINES
    03/109124 DC : DRAFT JUNE 2003 IEC 61400-1 ED.3.0 - WIND TURBINES - PART 1: DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
    03/307803 DC : DRAFT MAY 2003 EN 61009-1 - RESIDUAL CURRENT OPERATED CIRCUIT-BREAKERS WITH INTEGRAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION FOR HOUSEHOLD AND SIMILAR USES (RCCB'S) - PART 1: GENERAL RULES
    BIS IS 12640-2 : 2008 RESIDUAL CURRENT OPERATED CIRCUIT-BREAKING FOR HOUSEHOLD AND SIMILAR USES - PART 2: CIRCUIT-BREAKERS WITH INTEGRAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION (RCBOS)
    DIN EN 50091-1-1 : 1997
    IEC 62103:2003 Electronic equipment for use in power installations
    UNE-EN 60079-14:2016 Explosive atmospheres - Part 14: Electrical installations design, selection and erection
    UNE-EN 62109-1:2011 Safety of power converters for use in photovoltaic power systems -- Part 1: General requirements
    IEC 62135-1:2015 Resistance welding equipment - Part 1: Safety requirements for design, manufacture and installation
    BS EN 61800-5-1:2007 Adjustable speed electrical power drive systems Safety requirements. Electrical, thermal and energy
    BS EN 60079-14:2014 (published 2016-04) Explosive atmospheres Electrical installations design, selection and erection
    CSA E60079.14 : 2002 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS FOR EXPLOSIVE GAS ATMOSPHERES - ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN EXPLOSIVE GAS ATMOSPHERES (OTHER THAN MINES)
    15/30326911 DC : 0 BS EN 62873-1 - CIRCUIT BREAKERS AND SIMILAR EQUIPMENT FOR HOUSEHOLD USE - PART 1: OUTLINE OF BLOCKS AND MODULES FOR RESIDUAL CURRENT DEVICE STANDARDS
    01/206938 DC : DRAFT OCT 2001 IEC 60255-27 ED.1.0 - MEASURING RELAYS AND EQUIPMENT - PART 27: PRODUCT SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR MEASURING RELAYS AND PROTECTION EQUIPMENT
    I.S. EN 62135-1:2015 RESISTANCE WELDING EQUIPMENT - PART 1: SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR DESIGN, MANUFACTURE AND INSTALLATION
    I.S. EN 62020:1999 ELECTRICAL ACCESSORIES - RESIDUAL CURRENT MONITORS FOR HOUSEHOLD AND SIMILAR USES (RCMS)
    95/204309 DC : DRAFT APRIL 1995 RESIDUAL CURRENT DEVICES WITHOUT INTEGRAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION INCORPORATED IN OR ASSOCIATED WITH FIXED SOCKET-OUTLETS (SRCDS)
    97/204928 DC : DRAFT APR 1997 PREN 50273 - INSTALLATION OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS IN AREAS ENDANGERED BY EXPLOSIVE SUBSTANCES
    95/214868 DC : 0 PREN 50178 - ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT FOR USE IN POWER INSTALLATIONS
    IEC 62040-1-1:2002 Uninterruptible power systems (UPS) - Part 1-1: General and safety requirements for UPS used in operator access areas
    05/30138005 DC : DRAFT AUG 2005 IEC 60079-14 ED 4 - ELECTRICAL APPARATUS FOR EXPLOSIVE GAS ATMOSPHERES - PART 14: ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN HAZARDOUS AREAS (OTHER THAN MINES)
    BS EN 62109-1 : 2010 SAFETY OF POWER CONVERTERS FOR USE IN PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER SYSTEMS - PART 1: GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
    03/100155 DC : DRAFT JAN 2003 IEC 60439-4 - LOW-VOLTAGE SWITCHGEAR AND CONTROLGEAR ASSEMBLIES - PART 4: PARTICULAR REQUIREMENTS FOR ASSEMBLIES FOR CONSTRUCTION SITES (ACS)
    IEC 61557-6:2007 Electrical safety in low voltage distribution systems up to 1 000 V a.c. and 1 500 V d.c. - Equipment for testing, measuring or monitoring of protective measures - Part 6: Effectiveness of residual current devices (RCD) in TT, TN and IT systems
    IEC 61400-1:2005+AMD1:2010 CSV Wind turbines - Part 1: Design requirements
    IEC 61400-3:2009 Wind turbines - Part 3: Design requirements for offshore wind turbines
    EN 62109-1 : 2010 SAFETY OF POWER CONVERTERS FOR USE IN PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER SYSTEMS - PART 1: GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
    DIN VDE 0660-101 : 1992 LOW-VOLTAGE SWITCHGEAR AND CONTROLGEAR - PART 2: CIRCUIT BREAKERS
    EN 62020:1998/A1:2005 ELECTRICAL ACCESSORIES - RESIDUAL CURRENT MONITORS FOR HOUSEHOLD AND SIMILAR USES (RCMS)
    IEC 60718:1997 Electrical equipment for the supply of energy to battery powered road vehicles
    05/30139105 DC : DRAFT SEP 2005 IEC 61800-5-1 ED 2 - ADJUSTABLE SPEED ELECTRICAL POWER DRIVE SYSTEMS - PART 5-1: SAFETY REQUIREMENTS - ELECTRICAL, THERMAL AND ENERGY
    BS EN 50091-1-1:1997 Uninterruptible power systems (UPS) General and safety requirements for UPS used in operator access areas
    08/30176298 DC : DRAFT JAN 2008 BS EN 62477-1 - SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR POWER SEMICONDUCTOR CONVERTER SYSTEMS - PART 1: GENERAL
    BS EN 62020 : 1999 ELECTRICAL ACCESSORIES - RESIDUAL CURRENT MONITORS FOR HOUSEHOLD AND SIMILAR USES (RCMS)
    CSA E60079.7 : 2003 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS FOR EXPLOSIVE GAS ATMOSPHERES - PART 7: INCREASED SAFETY "E"
    NF EN 62040-1 : 2009 AMD 1 2013 UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SYSTEMS (UPS) - PART 1: GENERAL AND SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR UPS
    BIS IS 12640-1 : 2008 RESIDUAL CURRENT OPERATED CIRCUIT-BREAKERS FOR HOUSEHOLD AND SIMILAR USES - PART 1: CIRCUIT-BREAKERS WITHOUT INTEGRAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION (RCCBS)
    CSA C61400-3 : 2011 WIND TURBINES - PART 3: DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR OFFSHORE WIND TURBINES
    I.S. EN 50091-1-1:2004 UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SYSTEMS (UPS) - PART 1-1: GENERAL AND SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR UPS USED IN OPERATOR ACCESS AREAS
    NF EN 61800 5-1 : 2007 ADJUSTABLE SPEED ELECTRICAL POWER DRIVE SYSTEMS - PART 5-1: SAFETY REQUIREMENTS - ELECTRICAL, THERMAL AND ENERGY
    CSA E1008.1 : 0 RESIDUAL CURRENT OPERATED CIRCUIT-BREAKERS WITHOUT INTEGRAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION FOR HOUSEHOLD AND SIMILAR USES (RCCBS) - PART 1: GENERAL RULES
    I.S. EN 60079-14:2014 EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERES - PART 14: ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS DESIGN, SELECTION AND ERECTION
    I.S. EN 61400-3:2009 WIND TURBINES - PART 3: DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR OFFSHORE WIND TURBINES
    I.S. EN 61557-6:2007 ELECTRICAL SAFETY IN LOW VOLTAGE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS UP TO 1000 V A.C. AND 1500 V D.C. - EQUIPMENT FOR TESTING, MEASURING OR MONITORING OF PROTECTIVE MEASURES - PART 6: EFFECTIVENESS OF RESIDUAL CURRENT DEVICES (RCD) IN TT, TN AND IT SYSTEMS
    I.S. EN 50019:2001 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS FOR POTENTIALLY EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERES - INCREASED SAFETY "E"
    BS PD 60079-14 : 2000 GUIDE TO APPLICATION OF BS EN 60079-14
    NF EN 60947-2 : 2006 AMD 2 2013 LOW-VOLTAGE SWITCHGEAR AND CONTROLGEAR - PART 2: CIRCUIT-BREAKERS
    12/30269297 DC : 0 BS EN 60079-14/ED 5 - EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERES - PART 14: ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS DESIGN, SELECTION AND ERECTION
    BS EN 62135-1:2015 RESISTANCE WELDING EQUIPMENT - PART 1: SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR DESIGN, MANUFACTURE AND INSTALLATION
    IEC 62109-1:2010 Safety of power converters for use in photovoltaic power systems - Part 1: General requirements
    IEC 62310-1:2005 Static transfer systems (STS) - Part 1: General and safety requirements
    07/30161287 DC : 0 BS EN 60947-2 AMD1 - LOW-VOLTAGE SWITCHGEAR AND CONTROLGEAR - PART 2: CIRCUIT-BREAKERS
    IEC 62020:1998+AMD1:2003 CSV Electrical accessories - Residual current monitors for household and similar uses (RCMs)
    15/30322229 DC : 0 BS EN 61800-5-1:2007/AMD 1 - ADJUSTABLE SPEED ELECTRICAL POWER DRIVE SYSTEMS - PART 5-1: SAFETY REQUIREMENTS - ELECTRICAL, THERMAL AND ENERGY
    OVE/ONORM EN 62020 : AMD 1 2006 ELECTRICAL ACCESSORIES - RESIDUAL CURRENT MONITORS FOR HOUSEHOLD AND SIMILAR USES (RCMS)
    EN 62310-1 : 2005 STATIC TRANSFER SYSTEMS (STS) - PART 1: GENERAL AND SAFETY REQUIREMENTS
    EN 62135-1:2015/AC:2016-02 RESISTANCE WELDING EQUIPMENT - PART 1: SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR DESIGN, MANUFACTURE AND INSTALLATION
    EN 50019:2000/corrigendum Apr. 2003 ELECTRICAL APPARATUS FOR POTENTIALLY EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERES - INCREASED SAFETY "E"
    EN 61557-6:2007 ELECTRICAL SAFETY IN LOW VOLTAGE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS UP TO 1000 V A.C. AND 1500 V D.C. - EQUIPMENT FOR TESTING, MEASURING OR MONITORING OF PROTECTIVE MEASURES - PART 6: EFFECTIVENESS OF RESIDUAL CURRENT DEVICES (RCD) IN TT, TN AND IT SYSTEMS
    DIN VDE 0660-501 : 1992 SWITCHGEAR AND CONTROLGEAR; LOW-VOLTAGE SWITCHGEAR AND CONTROLGEAR ASSEMBLIES - PART 4: PARTICULAR REQUIREMENTS FOR ASSEMBLIES FOR CONSTRUCTION SITES (ACS)

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    CISPR 14-1:2016 Electromagnetic compatibility - Requirements for household appliances, electric tools and similar apparatus - Part 1: Emission
    IEC 60060-2:2010 High-voltage test techniques - Part 2: Measuring systems
    IEC 60038:2009 IEC standard voltages
    IEC 62423:2009 Type F and type B residual current operated circuit-breakers with and without integral overcurrent protection for household and similar uses
    IEC 60998-1:2002 Connecting devices for low-voltage circuits for household and similar purposes - Part 1: General requirements
    IEC 61000-6-4:2006+AMD1:2010 CSV ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY (EMC) - PART 6-4: GENERIC STANDARDS - EMISSION STANDARD FOR INDUSTRIAL ENVIRONMENTS
    IEC TS 60479-1:2005+AMD1:2016 CSV Effects of current on human beings and livestock - Part 1: Generalaspects
    IEC 61540:1997+AMD1:1998 CSV Electrical accessories - Portable residual current devices without integral overcurrent protection for household and similar use (PRCDs)
    IEC 60364-4-41:2005+AMD1:2017 CSV Low voltage electrical installations - Part 4-41: Protection for safety - Protection against electric shock
    IEC 62873-2:2016 Residual current operated circuit-breakers for household and similar use - Part 2: Residual current devices (RCDs) - Vocabulary
    IEC 60364-5-53:2001+AMD1:2002+AMD2:2015 CSV Electrical installations of buildings - Part 5-53: Selection and erection of electrical equipment - Isolation, switching and control
    IEC 61000-6-1 : 3.0 ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY (EMC) - PART 6-1: GENERIC STANDARDS - IMMUNITY STANDARD FOR RESIDENTIAL, COMMERCIAL AND LIGHT-INDUSTRIAL ENVIRONMENTS
    IEC 61543:1995 Residual current-operated protective devices (RCDs) for household and similar use - Electromagnetic compatibility
    IEC 62335:2008 Circuit breakers - Switched protective earth portable residual current devices for class I and battery powered vehicle applications
    IEC TR 62710:2015 Residual current devices (RCDs) associated with additional functions(s)
    IEC 61000-6-3:2006+AMD1:2010 CSV Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 6-3: Generic standards - Emission standard for residential, commercial and light-industrial environments
    ISO/IEC Guide 51:2014 Safety aspects Guidelines for their inclusion in standards
    IEC 62873-3-3:2016 Residual current operated circuit-breakers for household and similar use - Part 3-3: Specific requirements for RCDs with screw-type terminals for external untreated aluminium conductors and with aluminium screw-type terminals for use with copper or with aluminium conductors
    IEC 62640:2011+AMD1:2015 CSV Residual current devices with or without overcurrent protection forsocket-outlets for household and similar uses
    IEC 60529:1989+AMD1:1999+AMD2:2013 CSV Degrees of protection provided by enclosures (IP Code)
    IEC GUIDE 104:2010 The preparation of safety publications and the use of basic safety publications and group safety publications
    IEC 62020:1998+AMD1:2003 CSV Electrical accessories - Residual current monitors for household and similar uses (RCMs)
    IEC 60068-3-4:2001 Environmental testing - Part 3-4: Supporting documentation and guidance - Damp heat tests
    IEC 60947-2:2016 Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear - Part 2: Circuit-breakers
    IEC 60060-1:2010 High-voltage test techniques - Part 1: General definitions and test requirements
    IEC 61140:2016 Protection against electric shock - Common aspects for installation and equipment
    IEC 60670-24:2011 Boxes and enclosures for electrical accessories for household and similar fixed electrical installations - Part 24: Particular requirements for enclosures for housing protective devices and other power dissipating electrical equipment
    IEC 60364-4-42:2010+AMD1:2014 CSV Low-voltage electrical installations - Part 4-42: Protection forsafety - Protection against thermal effects
    IEC 61000-6-2 : 3.0:2016 ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY (EMC) - PART 6-2: GENERIC STANDARDS - IMMUNITY STANDARD FOR INDUSTRIAL ENVIRONMENTS
    IEC 60664-1:2007 Insulation coordination for equipment within low-voltage systems - Part 1: Principles, requirements and tests
    IEC TS 60479-2:2007 Effects of current on human beings and livestock - Part 2: Special aspects
    IEC 60068-2-30:2005 Environmental testing - Part 2-30: Tests - Test Db: Damp heat, cyclic (12 h + 12 h cycle)
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