• IEEE 81-2012

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    IEEE Guide for Measuring Earth Resistivity, Ground Impedance, and Earth Surface Potentials of a Grounding System

    Available format(s):  PDF

    Withdrawn date:  30-03-2023

    Language(s):  English

    Published date:  28-12-2012

    Publisher:  Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers

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    Table of Contents - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    1. Overview
    2. Normative references
    3. Definitions
    4. Test objectives
    5. Safety precautions while making ground tests
    6. General considerations on the problems related to
        measurement
    7. Earth resistivity
    8. Ground impedance
    9. Testing earth potentials and step and touch voltages
    10. Integrity of grounding systems
    11. Current splits
    12. Transient impedance of grounding system
    Annex A (informative) - Nonuniform soils
    Annex B (informative) - Determination of an earth model
    Annex C (informative) - Theory of the fall-of-potential
                            method
    Annex D (informative) - Surface material resistivity
    Annex E (informative) - Instrumentation
    Annex F (informative) - Bibliography

    Abstract - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    The test methods and techniques used to measure the electrical characteristics of the grounding system include the following topics: a) Establishing safe testing conditions b) Measuring earth resistivity c) Measuring the power system frequency resistance or impedance of the ground system to remote earth d) Measuring the transient (surge) impedance of the ground system to remote earth e) Measuring step and touch voltages f) Verifying the integrity of the grounding system g) Reviewing common methods and procedures for performing ground testing h) Reviewing instrumentation characteristics and limitations i) Reviewing various factors that can distort test measur.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee Substations
    Document Type Standard
    Publisher Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers
    Status Withdrawn
    Supersedes

    Standards Referenced By This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    IEEE 141 : 1993 IEEE Recommended Practice for Electric Power Distribution for Industrial Plants
    IEEE 902 : 1998 MAINTENANCE, OPERATION, AND SAFETY OF INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL POWER SYSTEMS
    IEEE 142 : 2007 GROUNDING OF INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL POWER SYSTEMS
    IEEE 487.3-2014 IEEE Standard for the Electrical Protection of Communication Facilities Serving Electric Supply Locations Through the Use of Hybrid Facilities
    IEEE 1268-2005 IEEE Guide for Safety in the Installation of Mobile Substation Equipment
    IEEE 1590-2009 REDLINE IEEE Recommended Practice for the Electrical Protection of Communication Facilities Serving Electric Supply Locations Using Optical Fiber Systems
    IEEE 487.1-2014 IEEE Standard for the Electrical Protection of Communication Facilities Serving Electric Supply Locations Through the Use of On-Grid Isolation Equipment
    IEEE 525-2007 IEEE Guide for the Design and Installation of Cable Systems in Substations
    NFPA 70B : 2016 RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE
    MIL-HDBK-1004-6 Base Document:1986 LIGHTNING PROTECTION
    IEEE 776-1992 IEEE Recommended Practice for Inductive Coordination of Electric Supply and Communication Lines
    IEEE DRAFT 80 : D14 JUN 99 DRAFT GUIDE FOR SAFETY IN AC SUBSTATION GROUNDING
    NETA ATS : 2017 ACCEPTANCE TESTING SPECIFICATIONS FOR ELECTRICAL POWER EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS
    IEEE DRAFT 525 : D15 2006 DESIGN AND INSTALLATION OF CABLE SYSTEMS IN SUBSTATIONS
    IEEE 1268-2016 REDLINE IEEE Guide for Safety in the Installation of Mobile Substation Equipment
    IEEE 2778-2020 IEEE Guide for Solar Power Plant Grounding for Personnel Protection
    IEEE C62.42-2005 IEEE Guide for the Application of Component Surge-Protective Devices for Use in Low-Voltage [Equal to or Less than 1000 V (ac) Or 1200 V (dc)] Circuits
    CSA C22.3 No. 3 : 1998 ELECTRICAL COORDINATION
    CAN/CSA-C22.3 NO. 3-98 (R2017) Electrical Coordination
    IEEE 487.4-2013 IEEE Standard for the Electrical Protection of Communication Facilities Serving Electric Supply Locations Through the Use of Neutralizing Transformers
    IEEE 3007.2 : 2010 This recommended practice covers the maintenance of industrial and commercial power systems.
    IEEE 487.5-2013 IEEE Standard for the Electrical Protection of Communication Facilities Serving Electric Supply Locations Through the Use of Isolation Transformers
    NASA KSC STD E 0012 : 2013 FACILITY GROUNDING AND LIGHTNING PROTECTION, STANDARD FOR
    NASA SSTD 8070 0081 : 2001 FACILITY ELECTRICAL STANDARD
    IEEE 3001.2-2017 IEEE Recommended Practice for Evaluating the Electrical Service Requirements of Industrial and Commercial Power Systems
    IEEE 1100 : 2005 POWERING AND GROUNDING ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT
    CSA C22.3 No. 3 : 1998 : INC : UPD 2 : 2002 : R2013 ELECTRICAL COORDINATION
    IEEE 487.2-2013 IEEE Standard for the Electrical Protection of Communication Facilities Serving Electric Supply Locations through the Use of Optical Fiber Systems
    UFC 3-260-01 : 2008 UNIFIED FACILITIES CRITERIA - AIRFIELD AND HELIPORT PLANNING AND DESIGN.
    IEEE DRAFT 367 : D5.1 SEP 95 DRAFT RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR DETERMINING THE ELECTRIC POWER STATION GROUND POTENTIAL RISE AND INDUCED VOLTAGE FROM A POWER FAULT
    IEEE 367-2012 IEEE Recommended Practice for Determining the Electric Power Station Ground Potential Rise and Induced Voltage from a Power Fault
    CSA C22.3 No. 3 : 1998:R2007 ELECTRICAL COORDINATION
    IEEE 487-2015 IEEE Standard for the Electrical Protection of Communications Facilities Serving Electric Supply Locations -- General Considerations
    IEEE 80-2013 IEEE Guide for Safety in AC Substation Grounding
    IEEE 776-2018 IEEE Recommended Practice for Inductive Coordination of Electric Supply and Communication Lines
    IEEE 2746-2020 IEEE Guide for Evaluating AC Interference on Linear Facilities Co-Located Near Transmission Lines
    IEEE 2760-2020 IEEE Guide for Wind Power Plant Grounding System Design for Personnel Safety

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    IEEE 80-2000 IEEE Guide for Safety in AC Substation Grounding
    IEEE 4-2013 IEEE Standard for High-Voltage Testing Techniques
    ASTM C 615 : 2003 Standard Specification for Granite Dimension Stone
    IEEE 80-2013 IEEE Guide for Safety in AC Substation Grounding
    AASHTO M 6 : 2013(R2018) SPECIFICATION FOR FINE AGGREGATE FOR HYDRAULIC CEMENT CONCRETE
    NFPA 70E : 2018 ELECTRICAL SAFETY IN THE WORKPLACE
    IEEE 142 : 2007 GROUNDING OF INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL POWER SYSTEMS
    ASTM C 136 : 2006 Standard Test Method for Sieve Analysis of Fine and Coarse Aggregates
    ASTM C 117 : 2017 : REDLINE Standard Test Method for Materials Finer than 75-μm (No. 200) Sieve in Mineral Aggregates by Washing
    IEEE 367-2012 IEEE Recommended Practice for Determining the Electric Power Station Ground Potential Rise and Induced Voltage from a Power Fault
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