• C88-16

    Current The latest, up-to-date edition.

    Power transformers and reactors

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF

    Language(s):  English, French

    Published date:  01-01-2016

    Publisher:  Canadian Standards Association

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    Table of Contents - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Preface
    1 Scope
    2 Reference publications
    3 Definitions
    4 Service conditions and loading
    5 Terminal markings, polarity, and angular displacement
    6 Types based on cooling methods
    7 Ratings
    8 Voltage taps for deenergized operation
    9 Temperature rise
    10 Short-circuit characteristics
    11 Insulation levels and clearances in air
    12 Stabilizing windings
    13 Sound levels
    14 Tolerances
    15 Mechanical features and accessories
    16 Tests
    17 Rating plate
    18 Instruction manual
    19 Finish
    20 Specific requirements for shunt reactors
    21 Specific requirements for grounding transformers
    22 Specific requirements for series-voltage regulators
    23 Specific requirements for phase-shifting transformers
    24 Transformers and autotransformers with load-tap-changing
       (LTC)
    25 HVDC converter transformers
    26 Transformers with high temperature insulation
    Annex A (Informative) - Commentary
    Annex B (Informative) - Information required with enquiry
            and order
    Annex C (Informative) - Mechanical strength of transformers to
            withstand external short-circuit currents

    Abstract - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Pertains to all liquid-filled transformers, autotransformers, booster transformers, load-tap-changing transformers, grounding transformers, phase-shifting transformers, series-voltage regulators, and shunt reactors.

    Scope - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Preface This is the fifth edition of CSA C88, Power transformers and reactors. It supersedes the previous editions published in 1991, 1979, 1968, and 1947. This Standard is written in reference to two winding transformers, although many requirements are common to multi-winding transformers, autotransformers, load-tap-changing transformers, shunt reactors, and series-voltage regulators. Where there are special requirements for these other transformers, there are clauses in the Standard specifically addressed to these other types of transformers. In addition to general updating, this edition of the Standard includes the following key revisions: a) Reference publications and definitions have been expanded and updated. b) A cold start procedure has been included (see Clause 4.6) with informative background material in Annex A. c) Insulating liquid with a fire point greater than 300 C has been included (see Clause 6.2.1). d) Limits of temperature rise with respect to internal hot spot have been revised (see Clause 9.2d)). e) Requirements for stabilizing windings have been revised (see Clause 12.3). f) A new clause on gasket materials has been included (see Clause 15.1.27). g) Requirements for control cabinets have been expanded (see Clause 15.1.22). h) Several tests have been revised including i) induced potential test (see Clause 16.3.3); ii) lightning impulse tests (see Clause 16.3.4); iii) switching impulse tests (see Clause 16.3.5); and iv) loss and impedance tests (see Clause 16.4). i) A new tank pressure test (Clause 16.9) and gas accumulation test (Clause 16.10) have been included. j) A new clause on HVDC converter transformers has been included (see Clause 25). k) A new clause on transformers with high-temperature insulation has been included (see Clause 26). l) Table 10 has been revised to include a tolerance for load losses. m) A summary table of tests specified in this Standard has been included (see Table 13). Scope 1.1 This Standard, except as noted in Clause 1.2, applies to all liquid-filled transformers, autotransformers, booster transformers, load-tap-changing transformers, grounding transformers, phase-shifting transformers, series-voltage regulators, and shunt reactors. Note: The term \"transformer(s)\" in this Standard refers to the overall unit and not just to the electrical components implied by the definition. 1.2 This Standard does not apply to the following: a) distribution transformers (see CAN/CSA-C2.1 and CAN/CSA-C2.2); b) instrument transformers (see CAN/CSA-C60044 series and CAN/CSA-C61869 series); c) dry-type transformers (see CSA C9); d) pad-mounted transformers (see CAN/CSA-C227 Series of Standards); e) submersible transformers (see CSA C301 Series of Standards); f) three-phase network transformers (see CSA C199); and g) rectifier transformers, welding transformers, furnace transformers, starting transformers, testing transformers, or current-limiting reactors. Note: In the above list, the pertinent CSA Group standard number has been noted where such exists. Where no CSA Group standard exists, this Standard may be used insofar as it applies. 1.3 This Standard does not include energy efficiency requirements. For such requirements, see CSA C802.3 for maximum losses for power transformers up to 10 MVA. 1.4 The values given in SI units are the units of record for the purposes of this Standard. The values given in parentheses are for information and comparison only. 1.5 In this Standard, \"shall\" is used to express a requirement, i.e., a provision that the user is obliged to satisfy in order to comply with the standard; \"should\" is used to express a recommendation or that which is advised but not required; and \"may\" is used to express an option or that which is permissible within the limits of the Standard. Notes accompanying clauses do not include requirements or alternative requirements; the purpose of a note accompanying a clause is to separate from the text explanatory or informative material. Notes to tables and figures are considered part of the table or figure and may be written as requirements. Annexes are designated normative (mandatory) or informative (non-mandatory) to define their application.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Document Type Standard
    Publisher Canadian Standards Association
    Status Current
    Supersedes

    Standards Referenced By This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    CSA C22.3 No. 61936-1 : 2008 : R2015 POWER INSTALLATIONS EXCEEDING 1 KV A.C. - PART 1: COMMON RULES
    CSA Z318.5 : 0 COMMISSIONING OF ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS IN HEALTH CARE FACILITIES
    C22.2 NO. 300-18 Portable power equipment
    CSA C71.1 : 1999 INSULATION CO-ORDINATION - PART 1: DEFINITIONS, PRINCIPLES AND RULES
    CSA C88.1 : 1996 : R2015 POWER TRANSFORMERS AND REACTOR BUSHINGS
    CSA C802.3 : 2015 MINIMUM EFFICIENCY VALUES FOR POWER TRANSFORMERS
    CSA C88.1 : 1996 : R2005 POWER TRANSFORMERS AND REACTOR BUSHINGS
    CSA C88.1 : 1996 : R2011 POWER TRANSFORMERS AND REACTOR BUSHINGS
    CSA C22.3 No. 61936-1 : 2008 POWER INSTALLATIONS EXCEEDING 1 KV A.C. - PART 1: COMMON RULES
    CSA C13 : 0 INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS
    BS EN ISO 14224:2016 Petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries. Collection and exchange of reliability and maintenance data for equipment
    ISO 14224:2016 Petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries Collection and exchange of reliability and maintenance data for equipment
    CSA C22.2 No. 272 : 2014 WIND TURBINE ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS
    I.S. EN ISO 14224:2016 PETROLEUM, PETROCHEMICAL AND NATURAL GAS INDUSTRIES - COLLECTION AND EXCHANGE OF RELIABILITY AND MAINTENANCE DATA FOR EQUIPMENT (ISO 14224:2016)

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    CSA C71.2 : 1998 INSULATION COORDINATION - PART 2: APPLICATION GUIDE
    CSA C802.3 : 2015 MINIMUM EFFICIENCY VALUES FOR POWER TRANSFORMERS
    IEEE 32 : 1972 REQUIREMENTS, TERMINOLOGY AND TEST PROCEDURES FOR NEUTRAL GROUNDING DEVICES
    ANSI S1.4 : 1983 SPECIFICATION FOR SOUND LEVEL METERS
    CAN/CSA-C50-14 (R2018) Mineral insulating oil, electrical, for transformers and switches
    IEC TR 60616:1978 Terminal and tapping markings for power transformers
    IEC 60076-5:2006 Power transformers - Part 5: Ability to withstand short circuit
    IEEE C57.153:2015 GUIDE FOR PARALLELING REGULATING TRANSFORMERS
    IEC 60076-14:2013 Power transformers - Part 14: Liquid-immersed power transformers using high-temperature insulation materials
    IEEE C57.12.00 : 2015 STANDARD FOR GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR LIQUID-IMMERSED DISTRIBUTION, POWER, AND REGULATING TRANSFORMERS
    IEEE C57.91:2011 GUIDE FOR LOADING MINERAL-OIL-IMMERSED TRANSFORMERS AND STEP-VOLTAGE REGULATORS
    IEEE C57.15 : 2009 REQUIREMENTS, TERMINOLOGY, AND TEST CODE FOR STEP-VOLTAGE REGULATORS
    IEEE C57.12.90 : 2010 LIQUID-IMMERSED DISTRIBUTION, POWER, AND REGULATING TRANSFORMERS
    IEEE C57.98:2011 GUIDE FOR TRANSFORMER IMPULSE TESTS
    IEC 60076-1:2011 Power transformers - Part 1: General
    IEEE C57.129 : 2007 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS AND TEST CODE FOR OIL-IMMERSED HVDC CONVERTER TRANSFORMERS
    IEC 61378-2:2001 Convertor transformers - Part 2: Transformers for HVDC applications
    IEEE C57.154 : 2012 DESIGN, TESTING, AND APPLICATION OF LIQUID-IMMERSED DISTRIBUTION, POWER, AND REGULATING TRANSFORMERS USING HIGH-TEMPERATURE INSULATION SYSTEMS AND OPERATING AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES
    IEEE C57.100:2011 THERMAL EVALUATION OF INSULATION SYSTEMS FOR LIQUID-IMMERSED DISTRIBUTION AND POWER TRANSFORMERS
    IEEE C57.21 : 2008 REQUIREMENTS, TERMINOLOGY, AND TEST CODE FOR SHUNT REACTORS RATED OVER 500 KVA
    IEEE C57.119 : 2001 RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR PERFORMING TEMPERATURE RISE TESTS ON OIL-IMMERSED POWER TRANSFORMERS AT LOADS BEYOND NAMEPLATE RATINGS
    IEEE C57.130 : 2015 GUIDE FOR THE USE OF DISSOLVED GAS ANALYSIS APPLIED TO FACTORY TEMPERATURE RISE TESTS FOR THE EVALUATION OF MINERAL OIL-IMMERSED TRANSFORMERS AND REACTORS
    IEEE C57.116 : 2014 GUIDE FOR TRANSFORMERS DIRECTLY CONNECTED TO GENERATORS
    IEEE C57.12.28:2014 PAD-MOUNTED EQUIPMENT - ENCLOSURE INTEGRITY
    CSA C71.1 : 1999 INSULATION CO-ORDINATION - PART 1: DEFINITIONS, PRINCIPLES AND RULES
    IEC 60214-2:2004 Tap-changers - Part 2: Application guide
    IEEE C57.135 : 2011 GUIDE FOR THE APPLICATION, SPECIFICATION, AND TESTING OF PHASE-SHIFTING TRANSFORMERS
    IEC 60214-1:2014 Tap-changers - Part 1: Performance requirements and test methods
    IEEE C57.131 : 2012 REQUIREMENTS FOR TAP CHANGERS
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